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Energy. All of Earth’s energy comes from the Sun . Nature of Energy. Living organisms need energy for growth and movement. The Law of Conservation of Energy. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another. Energy conversions.

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energy
Energy
  • All of Earth’s energy comes from the Sun.
nature of energy
Nature of Energy

Living organisms need energy for growth and movement.

the law of conservation of energy
The Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Energy can be neither created nor destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another.
energy conversions
Energy conversions
  • All forms of energy can be converted into other forms.
    • The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity.
    • Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).
what is photosynthesis
What is photosynthesis?
  • Process where plants make their own food.
energy conversion in photosynthesis
Energy Conversion in Photosynthesis

6H2O + 6CO2 ----------> C6H12O6+ 6O2

slide8

sunlight

carbon dioxide

oxygen

photosynthesis

glucose

water

Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that happens in the leaf.

TO AIR OR USED FOR RESPIRATION

What are the reactants?

PRODUCT

REACTANT

Where do they come from?

FROM AIR

What are the products of the reaction?

PRODUCT

USED BY PLANT

What happens to the products?

REACTANT

FROM SOIL

slide9

‘synthesis’ = BUILD

‘photo’ = LIGHT

Photosynthesis means building with Light

carbon dioxide

CO2

water

H2O

+

glucose

C6H12O6

oxygen

O2

+

chlorophyll

 Green plants can make their own food from ……..… and ………..…

 using energy in the form of ………………….

 which is absorbed by chlorophyll in the ………………...

 The end products of photosynthesis are ………. and ………….

lets review
Lets Review
  • What is photosynthesis?
  • Where does photosynthesis take place
  • What is the formula for photosynthesis
cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • All living things need energy
  • Energy in the form of…
  • Food=chemical energy
  • Cell energy=ATP
what is cellular respiration
What is Cellular Respiration?
  • The process of converting food energy into ATP energy
  • C6H12O6+ 6 O2→ 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
where does c ellular respiration take place
Where does Cellular Respiration take Place?
  • Takes place in the mitochondria
plant groups
Plant Groups
  • Angiosperms (Flowering plants)
  • Gymnosperms (Cone bearing plants)
  • Ferns
  • Mosses
slide16

Ecology

The branch of biology that concerns interactions between organisms and their environments or habitats

slide17

Levels of Biological Organization

Biomolecule

Organelle

Cell

Tissue

Organ

Organ System

Organism

Population

Within the purview of ecology

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere

ecosystems
Ecosystems

Communities of organisms that interact with one another and with their physical environment, including sunlight, rainfall, and soil nutrients.

slide19

These region are called biomes. Some of these areas would be prairies, tropical rainforests, and deserts.

biome characteristics
Biome Characteristics
  • Occupy large regions
  • Plants & animals
  • Have specific climate with similar plants and animals
  • Species composition is not the same in different areas
6 primary biomes
6 Primary Biomes
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Grasslands
  • Deserts
  • Deciduous Forests
  • Tropical Rainforests
slide22

Biotic Factors

Biotic factors are living factors. Anything living OR THAT WAS ONCE LIVING is considered a biotic factor.

include plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms

slide23

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic, meaning not alive, are nonliving factors that affect living organisms.

include air, water, soil, temperature, wind, source of energy (usually sun)

like a set of nesting dolls
Like a set of nesting dolls…
  • We can think about the interactions and types of living things by organizing them into groups, smallest to largest.
  • A species includes only one type of organism.
    • Example: pigeon
  • A population includes all members of one species that live in the same area.
    • Example: all the pigeons in Brockton
bigger and bigger groups
…bigger and bigger groups!
  • A community includes all of the different species that live in the same area.
    • Example: all the pigeons, ants, maple trees, dogs, etc. that live in Brockton
  • An ecosystem includes both the community and the abiotic factors.
    • Example: the Brockton community plus the cars, buildings, rocks, air…
the organisms in a habitat can be organized in the following way
The organisms in a habitat can be organized in the following way…

ecosystem

community

species

population

eat or be eaten
Eat or be eaten
  • Here are some important terms that will help you describe interactions in a food web.

1. Producer (autotroph)

    • can make its own food
    • forms the base of the food web
producers
Producers

A producer is an organism that uses an outside energy source like the Sun to make energy-rich molecules.

consumer
Consumer

Wolves can’t make their own food. They are consumers.

  • A consumer is an organism that cannot make their own energy-rich molecules. Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms.

The Cape Buffalo can’t make its own food. It is a consumer.

mmmmm delicious
Mmmmm…delicious.

2. Consumer (heterotroph)

  • cannot make its own food

There are several words that describe consumers…

  • Prey: the hunted
  • Predator: the hunter
  • Herbivore: eats plants
  • Carnivore: eats animals
  • Omnivore: eats both plants and animals
consumers
Consumers

There are 4 general types of consumers:

  • Herbivores
  • Carnivores
  • Omnivores
  • Decomposers
herbivores
Herbivores

Herbivores – Plant eaters

  • Deer
  • Rabbits
  • Grasshoppers
herbivores1
Herbivores

Zebras eat grass. They are herbivores.

Cows are herbivores.

carnivores
Carnivores

Carnivores – Meat Eaters – Eat other animals

  • Frogs
  • Spiders
  • Cougars
carnivores1
Carnivores

Not all carnivores have razor sharp teeth.

Lions definitely eat meat!

omnivores
Omnivores

Omnivores – Eat both plants and animals

  • Bears
  • Pigs
  • Humans
omnivores1
Omnivores

Raccoons are omnivores. They eat both plants and animals.

While the panda’s digestive system is that of a carnivore, their diet consists of 99% bamboo.

decomposers
Decomposers

Mushrooms and other fungi break-down dead decaying matter.

food webs
Food webs
  • All organisms need FOOD to survive!
  • Food webs show what eats what.
food chain
Food Chain

A food chain is a simple model of the feedingrelationship in an ecosystem.

slide42

An energy pyramid from the Andrews

1 Kcal

3rd level

consumers

mostly carnivores &

some omnivores

10 Kcal

2nd level consumer

carnivores & omnivores

100 Kcal

1st level consumer

herbivores

1000 Kcal

Producers:

green plants make their own energy from sunlight

10,000 Kcal

slide43

When an owl eats a flying squirrel it uses about 90% of the calories to live—

move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators.

When a frog eats a cricket or a cricket eats a plant, they use 90% of those calories to move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators.

0.01%

1 Kcal

0.1%

10 Kcal

1%

100 Kcal

1000 Kcal

10%

100%

10,000 Kcal

niche
Niche

You might think that competition for resources would make it impossible for so many species to live in the same habitat. However, each species has different requirements for its survival. As a result, each species has its own niche. An organism’s niche is its role in its environment – how it obtains food and shelter, finds a mate, cares for its young, and avoids danger.

predator and prey
Predator and Prey

An organism’s niche includes how it avoids being eaten and how it finds or captures its food. Predators are consumers that capture and eat other consumers. The prey is the organism that is captured by the predator.

predator and prey1
Predator and Prey

Predator

Prey

slide49

What is Symbiosis?

I.) Symbiosis – 2 or more species live together in a close, long-term association.

there are 3 types of symbiotic relationships
There are 3 types of Symbiotic Relationships

MUTULISM

COMMENSALISM

PARASITISM

slide51

Mutualism

  • 1.) Mutualism – both organisms benefit
      • Ex. Shark & remora / herd animals & birds. Attaches to sides of other fish and turtles and eats food they drop.
slide52

Commensalism

  • 2.) Commensalism – one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.
    • Ex. Sea anemone & tropical fish
slide53

Parasitism

  • 3.) Parasitism – one organism feeds on & usually lives on or in another organism.
    • Ex. Ticks, mosquitoes, tapeworm, heartworm,
      • +, -
slide54

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution (the idea that organisms change through time) challenged prevailing 19th-century notions of a static world.

  • Wrote the book “The Origin of Species”
  • Research was conducted on the Galapagos Islands where he studied finches.
slide55

Darwin’s voyage aboard HMS Beagle.

• 1831-1836 trip around the world.

• Set out to document the “hand of God” in nature.

• Collected countless specimens and kept detailed notes.

this led him to the idea of natural selection
This led him to the idea of natural selection.
  • Natural selection rests on three indisputable facts:
    • • Organisms produce more offspring than can survive.
    • • Individuals vary in their characteristics.
    • • Many characteristics are inherited by offspring from their parents.
slide58
All living things have certain adaptations to survive. If they didn’t, they would die and become extinct eventually.
  • Here are some of the different kinds of animal adaptation:
    • Migration
    • Hibernation
    • Camouflage
    • Mimicry
    • Metamorphosis
    • Unique Defenses
    • Special Adaptations
slide59

Camouflage is a Physical adaptation

Camouflage (use of color in a surrounding)

The chameleon can change its color to match its surroundings. Can you do that?

mimicry
Mimicry
  • Mimicry allows one animal to look, sound, or act like another animal to fool predators into thinking it is poisonous or dangerous.  
slide61

Unique Defenses are Physical Adaptation

Chemical defenses(like venom, ink, sprays)

water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Evaporation – process by which water changes from a liquid into an atmospheric gas
  • Transpiration – loss pf water from a plant through its leaves
  • Condensation – process by which water changes from an atmospheric gas into a liquid
  • Precipitation - rain, sleet, hail, snow and other forms of water falling from the sky
carbon oxygen cycle
Carbon-Oxygen Cycle
  • Respiration
    • CO2 is given off
    • O2 is used
    • Glucose (containing carbon) is used
  • Photosynthesis
    • CO2 is used
    • O2 is given off
    • Glucose (containing carbon) is produced
carbon oxygen cycle1
Carbon-Oxygen Cycle
  • Consumers eat plants → use glucose or sugars (containing carbon) in respiration, which starts again
  • Consumers die → decomposers give off CO2
  • Consumers die → heat, pressure, time → become fossil fuel (coal, oil and natural gas)
nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • N2 in air (80% of the atmosphere) animals cannot use
    • Nitrogen fixing bacteria convert N2→ NH3 (ammonia) → converted to nitrates/nitrites →plants use to grow → LEGUMES (beans, alfalfa) nodules contain bacteria that can take atmospheric N2 and convert it to usable nitrogen
density independent factors
Density-Independent Factors
  • extrinsic & abiotic
    • weather
    • drought
    • volcanoes
    • floods
    • landslides
density dependent factors
Density-Dependent Factors
  • tend to be biotic & intrinsic
  • resource competition
  • intraspecific (within species)
    • when resources become limiting, intensity of competition increases
    • quick, healthy, and strong individuals will prevail
    • territoriality can control access to resources
density dependent factors1
Density-Dependent Factors
  • interspecific (between species)
    • competition ( -, -)
    • predator-prey
    • mutualism (+,+)
    • commensalism (+, 0)
    • parasitism (+,-)
how are living things organized
How are Living Things Organized?
  • According to the 6 Kingdom system of classification.
what are the 6 kingdoms
What are the 6 KINGDOMS?
  • Animalia
  • Plantae
  • Fungi
  • Protista
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria
how are the kingdoms organized
How are the Kingdoms Organized?
  • Type of Cell prokaryotic/eukaryotic
  • # of Cells - unicellular/multicellular
  • Feeding - autotrophic/heterotrophic-
what is a prokaryotic cell
What is a Prokaryotic Cell

What is a Eukaryotic Cell

No Nucleus

Nucleus

what is unicellular
What is Unicellular?

What is Multicellular?

Only one cell

More than one cell

what is an autotroph
What is an Autotroph?

What is a Heterotroph?

Make their own food

Do NOT make their own food

slide79

What is Classification?

  • Grouping of objects or information based on similarities.
  • In Biology this is called Taxonomy.
slide80

What is Taxonomy?

The branch of biology concerned with the grouping and naming of organisms

slide81

Who is Linnaeus?

  • Father of modern taxonomy
  • Developed the method of classification that is used today.
  • Classified organisms based on physical characteristics
  • Created the 7 taxonomic categories:
slide82

What is Linnaeus’s System

of Classification

  • King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti
  • Taxon – each level within a naming system.
  • Kingdom
    • Phyllum
      • Class
        • Order
          • Family
            • Genus
              • Species
standardized naming
Standardized Naming
  • Binomial nomenclature used
  • Genus species
  • Latin or Greek
  • Italicized in print
  • Capitalize genus, but NOT species
  • Underline when writing

Turdus migratorius

American Robin

classification groups
Classification Groups
  • Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed
  • There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific
  • Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species
slide86

King

  • Phillip
  • Came
  • Over
  • For
  • Gooseberry
  • Soup!
dichotomous keying
Dichotomous Keying
  • Used to identify organisms
  • Characteristics given in pairs
  • Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism
example of dichotomous key
Example of Dichotomous Key
  • 1a Tentacles present – Go to 2
  • 1b Tentacles absent – Go to 3
  • 2a Eight Tentacles – Octopus
  • 2b More than 8 tentacles – 3
  • 3a Tentacles hang down – go to 4
  • 3b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone
  • 4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish
  • 4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5
slide89

Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved.

Sewage treatment plants, thermal vents, etc.

what is kingdom archaebacteria the extremophiles
What is Kingdom ArchaebacteriaThe extremophiles!

Thermophiles Yellowstone N.P. Hot Springs

Halophiles in Great Salt Lake, Utah

slide91

Eubacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth.

Live in the intestines of animals

Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially.

domain eukarya is divided into kingdoms
Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms
  • Protista (protozoans, algae…)
  • Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …)
  • Plantae (multicellular plants)
  • Animalia (multicellular animals)
protista
Most are unicellular

Some are multicellular

Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic

Protista
fungi
Fungi
  • Multicellular, except yeast
  • Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it)
  • Cell walls made of chitin
what is the plantae kingdom
What is the Plantae Kingdom?

Plants ! The green stuff!

plantae
Multicellular

Autotrophic

Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis

Cell walls made of cellulose

Plantae
angiosperms flowering plants
Angiosperms (Flowering Plants)
  • Have unique reproductive organs called flowers
  • Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds.
  • Enclosed seed
  • Ovary develops into a fruit, which protects the seed and helps on dispersal.
flowering plants
Flowering Plants

A flowering plant has both male and female parts.

The female part is called the pistil.

The male part is called the stamen.

types of angiosperms
Types of Angiosperms

Named for the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons.

  • Monocots
  • Dicots
monocot vs dicot
Monocot vsDicot

Dicots

Net-veined leaves

  • Look at leaf venation

Monocots

Parallel-veined leaves

monocots
Monocots
  • 1 seed leaf
  • Flowering parts in multiples of 3.
  • Parallel veins
  • Ex. Corn and Lily
dicots
Dicots
  • 2 seed leaves
  • Flowering parts in multiples of 4 or 5
  • Branched veins
  • Ex. Bean, Rose, and Maple
gymnosperms cone bearers
Gymnosperms (Cone Bearers)
  • Reproduce with seeds that are exposed
  • Pollen (Example Pine Trees/Conifers)
animalia
Animalia
  • Multicellular
  • heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies)
  • Feed on plants or animals