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Ekologija javne uprave. Josip Kregar. comparative public administration.

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comparative public administration
comparativepublicadministration

Definitionfor "comparativepublicadministration" is the "quest for patternsandregularitiesinadministrativeactionandbehavior". It looksto test theeffectivenessoftheClassicalTheorists' (Fayol,Taylor,Urwick,etc) PrinciplesofAdministrationeffectiveness on a universallevel(different political andadministrativesetupsindevelopinganddevelopedcountriesandtheirecology) as wellasdevelop a comparativetheoryofPublicAdministration.

ideal or bureaucratic approach
Ideal or BureaucraticApproach:

Bureaucraticspecifications are studied for reachingconclusionsanddevelopingunderstanding. Underthisapproachstructuresoforganisations are analysedintermsoftheirhorizontaldifferentiation,verticaldifferentiation,spanofcontrol,etc. Proceduresandrules are analysedandtheframeworkoffunctioning is determined. Job specificationsanddescriptions at variousnodes are analysedand some understanding is reached on thebasisofelaboratenessanddegreeofspecialisationcomparedinregards to differentadministrative systems. Thelimitationsofthisapproach is thatthough it hasbeenconsideredsimple but it doesnotexplainthestructuresandtheirfunctionsinsocietyandgives a very general observation

structural functional approach
Structural - FunctionalApproach

It is considered as a very popular approach for comparingvariousadministrative systems andwasimplementedbyFred W. Riggsin his study for developing his Modelsofsociety/environment/ecologywhichwillbediscussedlaterinthisarticle. Thisapproachanalysessocietyintermsofitsvariousstructuresandtheirfunctions for reachinganunderstandingregardingtheirpositioningandfunctioning. Structuresherecanrefer to govt.(political arrangement) andabstract like values systems insociety. Function is seen as thedischargeofdutiesbythesestructuresinthesociety. Thelimitationofthisapproach is thattherehas to be a correctidentificationofthestructuresbeforeproceeding to analysethemespeciallyinagraria-transitiaandfused-prismaticsocieties.

ecological approach
EcologicalApproach

DevisedbyRiggsthisapproachstatesthatstructuresandtheirfunctionsexistinaninterdependantmanner. Soif a study is to beundertakenof a particularstructureanditsfunctionthenitseffects on other systems andtheirfunctionsofsociety are also to beanalysed. Limitations is thatthisapproachishighlycomplexanddifficult to apply

ecology and administration
ECOLOGY AND ADMINISTRATION

Ecologyinsimplewordsrelates to 'Environment'. Andthisenvironmentincludesphysical,socialandculturalaspects. So, basicallywe are going to talk abouttherelationshipbetweenadministrationandtheenvironment it is set in(internal as wellasexternal) and how theaffecteachother.Environment is thelargestsystem,therestandothers like political systems,administrativesystems,etc are all sub systems who work under it. It influencesits sub systems and vice versa. Theybothhave to adjusttoeachotherandalsoreformand change eachotherfrom time to time to stayupto date wherethepeople's wishesdrivethepoliciesandthepoliciesbringindevelopmentthatupliftsthesocio-economic status andleveloftheenvironment for progress. Sothey are interdependentandnotmutuallyexclusiveofeachother.

fred w riggs
Fred W. Riggs

Theecologicalapproach to PublicAdministrationwas first propagatedpopularlybyFred W. Riggs who studiedadministrative systems indifferentcountries( emphasis on developingcountries) andwhytherewas a vastamountofdisconnectamongthemwhileapplyingtheAmericanisedtheoriesofPublicAdministrationand how theycopedup. He foundthatthemainreason for thisuniquenessofadministrative systems inthe world is theenvironmentthatthey are set in. Eachcountry had a differentenvironmentsettingandthatplayeda major role intheshapingoftheadministrativesystembecausewithoutthehelpandapprovalofitspeopleanadministrativesystemcannotsurviveandthus it actsaccording to itsenvironmentandinturn it alsoinfluencesthesocietywithits work andprocedures.

weber riggs
Weber /Riggs

Max Weber projectedan ideal systemofbureaucracywherebureaucracywasshown as a closedsystemunaffectedbytheenvironment. A systemwhich Weber assumedwouldbeapplicableandsuccessfulin all countriesirrespectiveofitssocioeconomic status andthat's where he wentwrongbecausewecanverywellseethatthe systems in USA and UK etccannotbe applied inanenvironmentof India or anyotherdevelopingcountries. Weber did provide a verygoodstructure for theorganisationofbureaucracy but thepartwhich he missed as citedabovewasthestartingground for Riggswhen he began his research on therelationshipbetweenecologyandadministration.Ecology/Environmentaffectstheadministrativesystembothinternally as wellasexternally.

pokjedinac i kultura kao okolina
Pokjedinac i kultura kao okolina

Internally it affectswhenwetake note thatinactualitythe administrator is a manofsocietyandthuswhen he is takinganadministrativedecision,he willdefinitelybeinfluencedby his values,societalandculturalattitude,etc to quiteanextentandthatneedstobetakenintoaccount.

Externallyalsotheecology/environmentaffectstheadministrativeorganisationbymeansofsocialvaluesandrules,cultureofthesociety,dependence on otherimportantsubsystemsprevalentinthesociety,etcwheretheadministrationandpoliticshave to beincontextofthepeople's wishesanddemandsandiftheygoagainst it will face a possibilityofoverthrowand revolt anytime.

riggsian models and their critique
RIGGSIAN MODELS AND THEIR CRITIQUE

Riggs is consideredthepioneerinthefieldofEcologicalApproach to PublicAdministration. He statedthatifstudiesofPublicAdministration had toNormativebecomereallycomparativethen it has to shiftfrombeing(Establishing, relating to, or derivingfrom a standard or norm, esp. ofbehavior) toempirical(Based on, concernedwith, or verifiablebyobservationorexperienceratherthantheoryor pure logic), fromIdeographic(casebycasestudyandnotrelated to one another) to nomothetic(relatingtothestudy or discoveryof general scientificlaws) andfromnonecological(closedandconfined to one area) to ecological(openandcrosscultural).

asgraria and industria
AsgrariaandIndustria

a) AGRARIA MODEL: It is theAgriculturalsocietyandthecharacteristics are functionaldiffusion,particularisticnorms,selfsufficiency,ascriptive(Theattributionofsomething to a cause) values,stablelocal groups andlimited or no mobility,differentiatedstratification. Agraria is agriculturedominatedsocietyandRiggstakes China at the time for instance Imperial China. InAgrarianprimordialpreferences like casteandgivenpriority. Occupationalpattern is fixedthatisAgricultureandcarries on for manygenerations. Veryfewadministrativestructuresandtheirfunctions/dutieswerenot at all specified.

b) TRANSITIA MODEL : It is theinbetweensociety. It is inbetween or lets use thetermintransitionbetweentheAgrariaandIndustriasocietyandbearsfeaturesresembling to both. It is on thepath to become a developedsocietyfromanagriculturalsociety. Examples are India,Thailand,etc.

c) INDUSTRIA MODEL: It refers to a developed or Industrydominatedsociety. Itscharacteristics are Universalisticnorms,Achievementvalues,specificpatterns,highdegreeofsocialandspatialmobility,well-developedoccupationalsystem,egalitarianclasssystem,prevalenceofassociationswhicharefunctionallyspecificandnonascriptive. USA is anexampleofthissociety.

fused and diffracted
FusedandDiffracted

It is the more improvisedandspecifiedversionof his previoustypologywheretheFusedsocietycanbecompared to theagrarian model,theprismaticsocietycanbecompared to theTransitia model andtheDiffractedsocietycanbecompared to theIndustria model.This Model wasdesigned to silencethosecritics who statedthatRiggs had noteffectivelyandindetailspecifiedthe 'Transitia' societywhichwasveryimportant as most ofthe world ininthatphase.This model effectivelydetailed all ofthetypologies.The new model is based on theprincipleof a prismand how it diffractsfusedcoloursof white lightbackintothe seven coloursofthespectrumwhenpassedthrough it. White lightrepresents a societywithverylessdegreeofspecialisationanddevelopmentandthediffractedspectrumreflectsthehighlyspecialisedanddevelopedsociety. Theinbetweenprismaticsociety is thetransitionsociety.

fused
FUSED

1) Heavilydependent on agriculture.2) Economicsystembased on barter system.3) King andofficialsnominatedbythekingcarryout all administrative,economicandotheractivities.4) Royal familyandspecialsectsdominate. 5) Ascriptivevaluesdominate.6) Havingmanyadministrativestructuresthat are partdiffracted(performspecialfunctionstheyaregivenchargeof) andpartfused ( manystructuresperformingmanyfunctionswhicharenotprescribed to themthusoverlappingwiththediffractedonesandconfusingthesystem).

diffracted model
DIFFRACTED MODEL:

1) It is thepolaroppositeofthefusedsociety.  Eachstructurecarriesoutits own functions.2)  Attainmentvalueinsociety.3) Economicsystembased on marketmechanism(demandandsupply)4) Responsivegovernment5) General consensusamong all thepeople on all basicaspectsofsocial life.

prismatic model
PRISMATIC MODEL

1) In real no society is completelyfused or completelydiffracted. A prismaticsocietyhasachievedacertaindegreeofdifferentiation or specialisation.2) Heterogeneity - Simultaneousexistenceofdifferentkindsofsystemandviewpoints. Example - rural-urban,Indian gurukuls - westerneducation,homoeopathic-allopathic. Variousfactorspullingthesystemapart. Political andadministrativeofficersenjoyenormous influence. Privileges for select groups whichmaybecommunalthuscreating problem inadministration.3) Formalism(Excessiveadherence to prescribedforms) - Discrepancybetweenformallyprescribedandeffectivelypracticednorms. Rulesandregulations are prescribed but wide deviations are observed. Lackofpressure on govt. for programmeobjectives. Weaknessofsocialpowers to influence bureaucraticperformance. Hypocrisyinsocial life. Constitutionformalismwhichmeansthatthere is a gap betweenstatedprinciplesandactualimplementation.4) Overlapping - DifferentiatedstructurescoexistwithundifferentiatedstructuresofFusedtype. New or modernsocialstructures are created,but traditionalsocialstructurescontinue to dominate. Example - Parliament,Govt,Officesexist but behaviour is stilllargelygovernedbyfamily,religion,caste,etc.

sala model
SALA MODEL

 a) Certainfeaturesofbureau ( diffracted ) coexistswithcertainfeaturesofchambers ( fused).

Formalismexists:1.a. Universalizaitonoflaw is there but is notfollowed. 1.b. Objective is socialwelfare but priority is personal aggrandizement.

b) Overlappingexists:Highlyconcentratedauthoritystructureoverlapswithlocalizedanddispersedcontrolsystem.

c) Noncooperationamong rival communitiesalsoreflectsinadministration. Sofavouritismandnepotism is widesprea

d) Existenceofclects – Thedominant group who use modernmethodsoforganization but retainsdiffuseandparticularisticgoaloftraditionaltype.

e) For promotionofficersdepend on ascriptiveties . Officersunresponsive to people . Unbalancedpolityinwhichbureaucracydominatesexists.

f) Nepotism, corruptionandinefficiency.

bazaar canteen model
BAZAAR - CANTEEN MODEL

a) Marketfactors ( demandandsupply ) as wellasareafactors ( religious, social, family) dominatestheeconomy.b) Thisleads to price indeterminacyfurtherdeterioratingeconomicconditionsencouragingblack marketing, hoarding,adulterationetc.c) Foreigndominationand a smallsectionofpeopledominateeconomicinstitution.d) Price ofservicesvaryfrom place to place, time to time andperson to person.e) Economicsubsystemacts like subsidizedcanteen to priviledged & tributarycanteentomembersoflesspriviledged, politicallynoninfluential or membersofoutside group.f) Wagerelation: Wide gap exists for same work. Personswithlesswagemayfeelmotivated to earn more byillegitimatemeans.

criticism of riggs fused prismatic diffracted model
CRITICISM OF RIGGS' FUSED-PRISMATIC-DIFFRACTED MODEL

?

1) Usageofscientificwordsdoesnotmakeadministrationscience. 2) It hashighlytechnicaldescription3) Prismaticand sala models are equilibriummodelsanddoesnotlead to social change.4) Lackofmeasurementoflevelofdiffractioninprismatic or diffractedsociety.5) Diffractedsociety is alsonotdesirablebecause it is staticandinequilibrium.6) Difficult to identifythelevelofdifferentiationandintegration for development.7) Lackofinternationalperspective.8)Wronganalytical tool.9) Fails to explainthe role ofadministrationinsociety.10) Overlapping is notspecificphenomenaofprismaticsociety but existsindiffractedsocietyalso.11) Prismatic model has a negative character.