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G ardner’s Art Through the Ages - C 28 Adams -History of Western Art - C 22 The Enlightenment and its Legacy: Art of the Late 18 th through the Mid-19 th Century. Romanticism. 1. Thobaben 2009. From Neoclassicism to Romanticism.

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Gardner’s Art Through the Ages - C 28Adams -History of Western Art - C 22 The Enlightenment and its Legacy:Art of the Late 18th through the Mid-19th Century



Thobaben 2009

From neoclassicism to romanticism
From Neoclassicism to Romanticism

  • Understand the philosophical and stylistic differences between Neoclassicism and Romanticism.

  • Examine the growing interest in the exotic, the erotic, the landscape, and fictional narrative as subject matter.

  • Understand the mixture of classical form and Romantic themes, and the debates about the nature of art in the 19th century.        

  • Identify artists and architects of the period and their works.

  • Examine the exotic, erotic, the landscape, and fictional narrative as subject matter.

  • Understand the mixture of classical form and Romantic themes

From neoclassicism to romanticism1
From Neoclassicism to Romanticism

  • Jacques-Louis David's stature and prominence as an artist and his commitment to classicism attracted numerous students, including Antoine-Jean Gros, Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.

  • Although they were deeply influenced by David, these artists also moved beyond the somewhat structured confines of Neoclassicism in their exploration of the exotic and the erotic and in the use of fictional narratives for the subjects of their paintings.

Napoleon among the sick and dying
Napoleon Among the Sick and Dying

Antoine-Jean Gros's painting of Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa presents a public image of Napoleon as a compassionate, fearless leader by showing him touching, as if capable of miraculously healing, the sores of a plague victim.

Gros, Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804. Oil on canvas, approx. 17' 5" x 23' 7”Louvre, Paris.

The mosque courtyard with its Moorish arcades in the background reveals Gros's fascination with the exoticismof the Near East

Baron antoine jean gros 1771 1835
Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835)

Gros was one of the most honored and respected painters during the reigns of Emperor Napoleon I, King Louis XVIII and King Charles X.

For these monarchs he executed large paintings of contemporary history and allegory, although he was also known as a painter of mythological subjects and of portraits in a Romantic vein.

Gros:Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole, 17 November 1796, oil on canvas, 749×584 mm, 1801, Versailles, Château

A tragic suicide in louisiana
A Tragic Suicide in Louisiana

Based on Chateaubriand's novel, The Genius of Christianity, Girodet-Trioson's The Burial of Atala is the tragic love story of two Native Americans in the wilderness of Louisiana.

The exotic locale and the erotic passion of the story appealed to the public's fascination with what it perceived as the primitivism of Native American tribal life.

Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, The Burial of Atala, 1808. Oil on canvas, approx. 6' 11" x 8' 9". Louvre, Paris.

Combining the ideal with the exotic
Combining the Ideal with the Exotic

Examine how the artist Ingres combined classical form with Romantic themes. Ingres also departed from Neoclassicism. A Romantic taste for the exotic and erotic is seen in his Grande Odalisque, which shows a languidly reclining, nude odalisque.

Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 11" x 5' 4". Louvre, Paris.

Ingres's paintings of female nudes continued through this period to culminate in The Turkish Bath, on which he worked on from about 1852 until 1863, when he was 83. Some critics have seen in these sensual and voyeuristically conceived nudes the only full expression of Ingres's artistic imagination.

Ingres: Turkish Bath, oil on canvas affixed to panel, diam. 1.08 m, 1863, Paris, Musée du Louvre

Drawn to the music
Drawn to the Music

Ingres's crisp, gracefully formal portrait of Paganini precisely records with meticulously drawn lines the violinist's features and demeanor.

Ingres, Paganini, 1819. Pencil drawing approx. 12" x 81/2". Louvre, Paris.

The rise of romanticism
The Rise of Romanticism

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concept of freedom contributed to the rise of Romanticism, which desired not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, feeling, action, worship, speech, and taste.

    • Individuals claim their own freedom and with it a unique subjectivity.

    • Romanticism believed that the path to freedom was through imagination and feeling rather than through reason and thinking.

  • Feeling is All - Romanticism believed in the value of sincere feeling and honest emotion. It emphasized feeling, imagination, intuition, and subjective emotion.

    • Romantic artists explored the outer edges of consciousness and developed a taste for the "Gothick" (the Middle Ages), the fantastic, the occult, and the macabre, and for the sublime, which inspires feelings of awe mixed with terror.

Claustrophobic dungeon
Claustrophobic Dungeon

Not all of Giovanni Battista Piranesi's prints were of classical ruins.

His series of etched prints of imaginary dungeons, the Carceri (prisons), shows grim, infernal-looking architectural fantasies of massive arches, vaults, piers, and stairways.

Within the gloomy, menacing spaces move small, insect-like human figures.

Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Carceri VII, ca. 1750. Etching, second state, approx. 1' 4" x 1' 9". Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, England.


A nightmarish vision
A Nightmarish Vision

Henry Fuseli 's The Nightmare illustrates the Romantic taste in night moods of horror, in Gothick fantasies, in the demonic, macabre, and sadistic.

Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781. Oil on canvas, 3' 4" x 4' 2”,Detroit Institute of the Arts

Inspired by the spirits
Inspired by the Spirits

English artist William Blake derived the compositions of many of his paintings and poems from spirits who visited him in dreams.

He believed that rationalism's search for material explanations of the world stifled human nature's spirituality.

In Blake's highly individual vision of God in Ancient of Days the figure's ideal classical anatomy merges with the inner dark dreams of Gothick Romanticism.

William Blake, Ancient of Days, frontispiece of Europe: A Prophecy, 1794. Metal relief etching, hand-colored, approx. 9 1/2" x 6 3/4". Whitworth Art Gallery, University of Manchester.

Drama action and color in spanish romanticism
Drama, Action, and Color in Spanish Romanticism

  • Examine the issues of drama, action, and color in the art of Spanish artist Francisco Goya.

  • Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) emerged as one of the greatest artists of the Romantic period.

    • He first gained attention as a cartoon designer for tapestries.

    • A series of outstanding portraits of leading aristocrats earned him further acclaim.

Goya's "breakthrough" portrait was of the minister of state, the second most powerful man in Spain, The Count of Floridablanca, 1783. Here we see Goya (foreground) kowtowing before his magnificently red-clothed subject, holding up a portrait for his inspection. Floridablanca's pose, gesture and silvery stare are almost godlike in their superiority.

Goya, The Count of Floridablanca, 1783, Oil on canvas, 262 x 166 cm, Banco Urquijo, Madrid

Depicting the spanish royal family
Depicting the Spanish Royal Family the second most powerful man in Spain,

As Painter to the King of Spain, Goya painted a naturalistic portrait of The Family of Charles IV. Besides the King, Queen Maria Luisa, and their children, Goya also included himself.

…Perhaps, in imitation of Diego Velázquez's painting of Las Meninas.

Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800. Oil on canvas, approx. 9' 2" x 11'. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Romance or Fiction? the second most powerful man in Spain,

A tall, slender, dark-haired woman of exceptional beauty, appears several times in Goya’s works as a seductress, traitor and victim. We know who she is: María del Pilar Teresa Cayetana de Silva Álvarez de Toledo, la Duquesa de Alba.Thanks to Goya's paintings and the myth that has blossomed around them, she is one of the great erotic "presences" of world painting. The real nature of her relationship to Goya is less clear than we think.There are only a few suggestions in all his work that their relationship was ever more than a close friendship. He painted one of them in 1797.

Portrait of the Duchess of Alba, 1797, Oil on canvas, 210 x 149 cm, Hispanic Society of America, New York

It's more likely that the duchess represented, for Goya, an erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark maja-hood and sexuality.

The "evidence" of their intimacy, the so-called Naked Maja, isn't evidence at all, because there is nothing to suggest that either it or its clothed double in the Prado actually represents the duchess of Alba. It's a spicy bit of gossip but it got into circulation well after Goya's death.

Goya, The Nude Maja, 1800, Oil on canvas, 97 x 190 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid

Reconsidering reason
Reconsidering Reason erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Goya first welcomed the revolution’s promise of political enlightenment but he became disillusioned when the hoped for reforms were short lived. This is reflected in his etching The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, from a series Los Caprichos (The Caprices).

It shows the artist asleep while threatening creatures symbolizing folly and ignorance converge on him. The image may be interpreted as showing what emerges when reason is suppressed.

Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, from Los Caprichos, ca. 1798. Etching and aquatint, 8 1/2" x 6". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Turmoil in spain the massacre of may 3 1808
Turmoil in Spain - The Massacre of May 3, 1808 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

The French invasion was met with Spanish resistance.In retaliation for an attack on French troops by Spanish patriots on 2 May 1808, the French spent the next day, 3 May 1808, executing Spanish citizens.

Goya painted an emotional record of the ruthless event in 1814.

In support of Ferdinand VII’s claim to the throne, Napoleon sent French troops to Spain, but after ousting Charles IV and Maria Luisa, installed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne.

Goya, Third of May 1808, oil on canvas, 2.66×3.45 m, 1814, Madrid, Museo del Prado

Paintings of dark emotions
Paintings of Dark Emotions erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • One of Goya's "Black Paintings," which reflect his disillusionment and pessimism later in life, shows a terrifying and disturbing vision of Saturn devouring one of his children.

Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819-1823. Detail of a detached fresco on canvas, full size approx. 4' 9" x 2' 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.


The french debate color vs line
The French Debate: Color vs. Line erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Understand the French debate over theories related to color (expression) vs. line (drawing or form) as appropriate to artistic expression.

  • In contrast to the Neoclassical artist Ingres, who claimed drawing (line) to be the probity of art, the Romantic painter Eugène Delacroix promoted the value of color.

Death and despair on a raft
Death and Despair on a Raft erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Théodore Géricault's ambitious painting of the Raft of the Medusa shows the handful of survivors of the frigate Medusa, which, due to the incompetence of the captain, a political appointee, had run aground on a reef.

  • This grandly conceived, large-scale painting combines a realistic attempt to record the event accurately with a Romantic taste for the drama and horror.

Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, oil on canvas, 4.91×7.16 m, exhibited 1819, Paris, Musée du Louvre

Picturing insanity
Picturing Insanity erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Géricault's portrait of an Insane Woman (Envy) is an examination of the influence of mental states on the human face, which, it was believed, accurately revealed character.

It reflects the Romantic interest in mental aberration and the irrational states of the mind.

Gericault: Manic Envy, oil on canvas, 711×533 mm, c. 1822, Lyon, Musée des Beaux-Arts

A portrait of music
A Portrait of Music erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Delacroix's painting of Paganini attempts to convey a sense of the sound and feeling of the great violinist's inspired virtuoso performances.

Compare to Ingres’s drawing.

Eugène Delacroix, Paganini, ca. 1832. Oil on canvas, approx. 1' 5" x 111/2". The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.

Romanticism in literature
Romanticism in Literature erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Romantic American authors, such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, based their writings on the supernatural/occult and human psychology.

  • An early German influence came from Johann Wolfgang Goethe whose 1774 novel The Sorrows of Young Werther had young men throughout Europe emulating its protagonist, a young artist with a very sensitive and passionate temperament.

  • Romanticism in British literature developed in a different form slightly later, mostly associated with the poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Both poets were also involved in utopian social thought in the wake of the French Revolution.

    • Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and John Keats constitute another phase of Romanticism in Britain.

Inspiring fiction and verse
Inspiring Fiction and Verse erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Orgiastic destruction and death
Orgiastic Destruction and Death erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Delacroix's works were products of his view that the artist's powers of imagination would in turn capture and inflame viewers' imagination.

  • Literature of imaginative power served Delacroix as a useful source of subject matter.

  • The Death of Sardanapalus, inspired by Lord Byron's 1821 narrative poem "Sardanapalus," is an erotic and exotic orgy of death and destruction conceived as grand drama.

Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1826. Oil on canvas, approx. 12' 1" x 16' 3". Louvre, Paris

Delacroix also painted current events, particularly tragic or sensational ones.

Leading the masses in uprising
Leading the Masses in Uprising erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Delacroix captured the passion and energy of the Revolution of 1830 in his paintingLiberty Leading the People.

He balances contemporary historical fact (the 1830 Revolution) with poetic allegory (the figure of Liberty) and, through the title and his inclusion of the towers of Notre-Dame in Paris, also locates the scene in a specific time and place.

Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, approx. 8' 6" x 10' 8". Louvre, Paris.

Delacroix s colorful legacy
Delacroix's Colorful Legacy erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Delacroix's visits to North Africa also heightened his awareness of the expressive power of color and light, and made him aware that color appears in nature only in an infinitely varied scale of different tones, shadings, and reflections.

  • In this regard, Delacroix anticipated the later development of Impressionist color science.

  • Delacroix thoroughly and definitively explored the domain of Romantic subject and mood.

  • His technique was impetuous, improvisational, and instinctive, and epitomized Romantic-colorist painting.

The allure of morocco
The Allure of Morocco erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Delacroix's trip to North Africa in 1832 renewed his Romantic conviction that beauty exists in the fierceness of nature, natural processes, and natural beings, especially animals, which he painted in scenes of violent and exotic tiger hunts.

Delacroix, Tiger Hunt, 1854. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 5" x 3'. Louvre, Paris.

Romanticism in sculpture
Romanticism in Sculpture erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Romanticism gave sculptors the opportunity to free themselves from past models.

  • New works were created based on the imagination and appealing to the emotions.

  • In France, leading romantic sculptors were:

    • François Rude

    • Antoine Louis Barye

    • Jean Baptiste Carpeaux

The dramatic in sculpture
The Dramatic in Sculpture erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

FranÁois Rude is best known for his stirring monumental sculptures on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, especially the Departure of the Volunteers in 1792—also called La Marseillaise—executed in 1833-1836.

A great winged figure personifying Liberty is shown above a group of men: She is rushing forward, screaming, urging them on to battle.

FranÁois Rude, La Marseillaise, Arc de Triomphe, Paris, 1833-1836. Approx. 42' x 26'.


Antoine louis barye
Antoine Louis Barye erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Barye was perhaps the finest animal sculptor since antiquity.

His meticulously rendered bronzes have an air of authenticity, suggesting wild animals observed in their native habitats but in actuality resulting from Barye's frequent visits to the Paris zoo.

Barye, Jaguar Devouring a Hare, 1850-1851. Bronze, approx. 1' 4" x 3' 1". Louvre, Paris.

This bronze of a Jaguar Devouring a Hare shows the bestial violence and brute beauty of nature.

77 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Jean baptiste carpeaux 1827 1875
Jean Baptiste Carpeaux erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark (1827–1875)

  • A later shift in taste toward a freer and more naturalistic style is exemplified by the work of sculptor Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux.

  • Breaking with traditional approaches to historical subjects and portraiture, Carpeaux infused his sculpture with a previously unseen freedom and immediacy

  • Ugolino, the character that galvanized peoples' fantasies and fears during the second half of the 19th century, appears in Canto 33 of Dante’s Inferno.

Ugolino and His Sons, modeled ca. 1860–61, executed in marble 1865–67

Carpeaux's famous group, erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark La Danse graces the facade of the Paris Opéra.

The vivaciousness of the figures and the effect of rippling light and shadow created by the modeling of their surfaces have a strong affinity with Rococo art.

Carpeaux, The Dance,1865–69; formerly on the facade of the Opéra, Paris, now in the Musée d’Orsay, Paris.

American sculptors in the late 19 th century
American Sculptors in the late 19 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark th century

In the U.S., William Rimmer, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French shared a romantic approach in their allegorical sculptures.

Rimmer's Dying Centaur, 1871, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Saint-Gauden's Adams Memorial, 1886-1891, Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C. and

French's The Angel of Death and the Sculptor (1891-1892), Forest Hills Cemetery, Roxbury, Massachusetts

are moving works, demonstrating the American romantic artists' technical excellence.

William rimmer c 1816 20 1879
William Rimmer erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark (c.1816–20-1879)

A painter and a sculptor, Rimmer worked in clay, not modeling but building up and chiseling; almost always without models or preliminary sketches; and always under technical disadvantages and in great haste; but his sculpture is anatomically remarkable and has an early Greek simplicity and strength.

William Rimmer ,The Dying Centaur, 1869; this cast, 1905, Bronze, 21 1/2 x 25 x 19 in. (54.6 x 63.5 x 48.3 cm)

Daniel chester french 1850 1931
Daniel Chester French erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark (1850-1931)

French was an American sculptor.

His best-known work is the sculpture of a seated Abraham Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

This less famous work, The Angel of Death and the Sculptor, was commissioned in 1889 to create a memorial for the Milmore Family, to be located in Forest Hill Cemetery in Jamaica

Milmore had been a sculptor himself, French decided to depict the artist at work, with the Angel of Death interrupting his work.

Augustus st gaudens 1848 1907
Augustus St. Gaudens erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark (1848-1907)

Raised in New York City, St. Gaudens traveled to Europe for further training and artistic study, and then returned to major critical success in the design of monuments commemorating heroes of the American Civil War, many of which still stand.

The Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, designed by Saint-Gaudens and Stanford White, was built in his memory on Beacon and Park Streets in Boston in 1897.

The adams memorial
The Adams Memorial erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

"Clover" Adams, wife of the writer Henry Adams, committed suicide in 1885 by drinking chemicals used to develop photographs. Adams, who steadfastly refused to discuss his wife's death, commissioned Saint-Gaudens to create a memorial that would express the Buddhist idea of nirvana, a state of being beyond joy and sorrow.

Saint-Gaudens's ambiguous figure reflects the search for new insights into the mysteries of life and death.

Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Adams Memorial, modeled 1886-1891, cast 1969, Roman Bronze Works (Founder) 69 7/8 x 39 7/8 x 44 1/2 in. (177.4 x 101.4 x 112.9 cm.) Smithsonian American Art Museum

Romantic landscape painting
Romantic Landscape Painting erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Understand the romantic interest in the landscape as an independent and respected genre in Germany, England, and the United States.

  • Romantic artists shared a deep desire to express powerful emotions. Like Atrocities and exotic experiences, nature can evoke deep feelings.

  • During the Romantic era, landscape painting took on a new significance.

    • Germany, especially, most landscape painting expressed to some degree a Romantic, pantheistic view of nature.

    • Artists participated in the spirit of nature, interpreted the signs, symbols, and emblems of nature's universal spirit, and translated nature's transcendent meanings.


Caspar david freidrich 1774 1840
Caspar David Freidrich erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark (1774 –1840)

Freidrich devoted his career to landscape painting. Many feature figures seen from the back, contemplating a mysterious natural setting.

In this painting, we see no face, so it's impossible to know whether the prospect facing the young man is exhilarating, or terrifying, or both.

Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818). 94.8 × 74.8 cm, Kunsthalle Hamburg.

The reverential landscape
The Reverential Landscape erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Friedrich painted landscapes as sacred places filled with a divine presence.

  • His solemn and deeply reverent Cloister Graveyard in the Snowis filled with emblems of death.

Caspar David Friedrich, Cloister Graveyard in the Snow, 1810. Oil on canvas, approx. 3' 11" x 5' 10" (painting destroyed during World War II).


Landscape painting in england
Landscape Painting in England erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

  • Because of its severe effects on the countryside, the Industrial Revolution had an impact on the evolution of Romantic landscape painting in England.

  • John Constable (1776-1837) , perhaps the best known painter of the English landscape artists, is renowned for his views of the Stour Valley in Suffolk, north of London.

  • The Haywain provides no hint of the Industrial Revolution that was transforming rural England.

  • No pollution mars the sky or pollutes the water . Rather, Constable ignored the effects of industry to portray a nostalgic feeling of nature.

John Constable, The Haywain, 1821. Oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 2". National Gallery, London.


John Constable, Wivenhoe Park, 1816 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

John Constable, Salisbury Cathedral ca. 1825 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Joseph mallord william turner 1775 1851
Joseph Mallord William Turner erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark (1775-1851)

In contrast to the calm Romantic yearnings of Constable’s landscapes, his contemporary J.M.W.Turner strove to portray the uncontrollable and frightening power of nature.

The shipwreck of the Minotaur, oil on canvas.,Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon

J.M.W.Turner, The shipwreck of the erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark Minotaur, oil on canvas.,Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon

The horrors of the slave trade
The Horrors of the Slave Trade erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

Turner's The Slave Ship uses the emotive power of color to convey the tragedy and cruelty of an incident that occurred in 1783, in which the captain of a slave ship ordered the sick and dying slaves thrown overboard. Turner's use of color had an incalculable effect on the development of modern art.

Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840. Oil on canvas, 2' 11 3/4" x 4' 1/4". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


Landscape painting in the united states
Landscape Painting in the United States erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark

One group of American landscape painters known as the Hudson River School formed the country’s first art movement.

Led by Thomas Cole (1801-1848), Hudson River artists painted the unspoiled woods and valleys of the Hudson River and Catskill mountains of upstate New York.

During the 1860s, Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) traveled westward and painted the sublime majesty of the Rocky mountains and Yosemite Valley.

The second generation of Hudson River school artists emerged to prominence after Cole's premature death in 1848, including Cole's prize pupil Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900).

Works by artists of this second generation are often described as examples of Luminism, or the Luminist movement in American art

Thomas cole 1801 1848
Thomas Cole erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark (1801-1848)

  • Cole, a member of the Hudson River School, painted his expansive, panoramic view of The Oxbow(the Connecticut River near Northampton, Massachusetts) with a dark stormy wilderness on the left and a sunlit and more civilized landscape on the right.

Thomas Cole, The Oxbow (Connecticut River near Northampton), 1836. Oil on canvas, 6' 4" x 4' 31/2". The Metropolitan Museum of Art,


Cole was primarily a painter of landscapes, but he also painted allegorical works. The most famous of these are the five-part series, The Course of Empire.

Albert bierstadt 1830 1902
Albert Bierstadt painted (1830-1902)

Bierstadt was not held in high esteem by critics of his day. His use of uncommonly large canvases was thought to be an egotistical indulgence, as his paintings would invariably dwarf those of his contemporaries when they were displayed together.

The romanticism evident in his choices of subject and in his use of light was felt to be excessive by contemporary critics.

His paintings emphasized

atmospheric elements like

fog, clouds and mist to

accentuate and complement

the feel of his work.

Bierstadt sometimes

changed details of the

landscape to inspire awe.

Albert Bierstadt, Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California, 1865. Oil on canvas, 641⁄2 x 961⁄2 in. (163.83 x 245.11 cm.).Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Ala.

Albert Bierstadt painted , Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California, 1865. Oil on canvas, 641⁄2 x 961⁄2 in. (163.83 x 245.11 cm.).Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Ala.

Wild wild west
Wild, Wild West painted

Albert Bierstadt's large painting Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California presents a panoramic view of breathtaking scenery and natural beauty.

Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868.

Bierstadt's paintings, called national attention to the splendor and uniqueness of the regions beyond the Rocky Mountains, and reinforced the popular nineteenth-century doctrine of Manifest Destiny.


Bierstadt, painted Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868. Oil on canvas, 5' 11" x 10'. National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution,

Frederic edwin church 1826 1900
Frederic Edwin Church painted (1826 –1900)

While committed to the natural sciences, Church was "always concerned with including a spiritual dimension in his works".

Frederic Church, Heart of the Andes (1859), Metropolitan Museum of Art

In 1853 and 1857, Church traveled in South America. He was inspired by the Prussian explorer Alexander von Humboldt's Cosmos and his exploration of the continent; Humboldt had challenged artists to portray the "physiognomy" of the Andes.

Frederic Church, painted Heart of the Andes (1859), Metropolitan Museum of Art

Reaffirming america s righteousness
Reaffirming America's Righteousness painted

Church's Twilight in the Wilderness, shows a panoramic view of the sun setting over a majestic landscape, is firmly entrenched in the idiom of the Romantic sublime. Church's idealistic and comforting view contributed to the national mythology of righteousness and divine providence.

Frederic Edwin Church, Twilight In the Wilderness, 1860. Oil on canvas, 101.6 cm. x 162.6 cm. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio


The aftermath of civil war
The Aftermath of Civil War painted

Winslow Homer's The Veteran in a New Field is a simple and direct commentary on the effects and aftermath of the American Civil War. The painting also comments symbolically about death, both the deaths of the soldiers and of Abraham Lincoln. It also contributed to the continuing myth making about national conditions.

Homer, The Veteran in a New Field, 1865. Oil on canvas, 2' 1/8" x 3' 2 1/8". The Metropolitan Museum of Art


Winslow Homer, The Veteran in a New Field, 1865, Oil on canvas; 24 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (61.3 x 96.8 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art

Romantic revivalist styles in architecture
Romantic Revivalist Styles in Architecture canvas; 24 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (61.3 x 96.8 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art

  • Examine the variety of revivalist styles in architecture, the origins of the designs and their impact.

  • In the nineteenth century, nations came to value their past as evidence of the validity of its ambitions and claims to greatness.

  • Art and architecture of the remote past came to be regarded as a product of cultural and national genius.


Restoring the artisanship of the middle age
Restoring the Artisanship of the Middle Age canvas; 24 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (61.3 x 96.8 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art

When the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt following the fire in 1834, the architect A. W. N. Pugin designed a Neo-Gothic building because of the moral purity and spiritual authenticity he associated with religious architecture of the Middle Ages.

Charles Barry and A. W. N. Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, designed 1835.


The impact of imperialism
The Impact of Imperialism canvas; 24 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (61.3 x 96.8 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art

John Nash's design for The Royal Pavilion at Brightonexhibits a wide variety of non-Western artistic styles. The exterior is a conglomeration of Islamic domes, minarets, and screens ("Indian Gothic"), while the interior decor ranges from Greece and Egypt to China.

John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England, 1815-1818

A view of the Royal Pavilion as seen from the garden


Adapting baroque opulence
Adapting Baroque Opulence canvas; 24 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (61.3 x 96.8 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art

J. L. Charles Garnier employs a festive and spectacularly theatrical Neo-Baroque design for the Paris Opéra.

J. L. Charles Garnier, the Opéra, Paris, 1861-1874


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions canvas; 24 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (61.3 x 96.8 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art

  • Discuss the Romantic movement in art, music, and literature in Europe and America.

  • Describe the architectural revivals associated with Romanticism.

  • Discuss the role the Salon in 19th-century France.

  • Describe the themes prevalent in Romanticism and show how works of art illustrate them.

  • Describe the psychological insights evident in Goya's paintings.

  • Discuss the aesthetic of the sublime and its expression in painting.

  • Compare and contrast Romantic painting in England, France, Spain, Germany, England, and America.

  • Compare Rude's La Marseillaise with Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People.