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Electronic impurity-state at non-magnetic atom. Electronic impurity-state at magnetic atom. Zn On-site LDOS spectrum: W 0 =-1.5 meV. Magnetic Ni Atom. Non-magnetic Zn Atom. Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca(Cu 1-x Zn x ) 2 O 8+d : x  0. 3 % LDOS map at –1.5mV.

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slide1

Electronic impurity-state at non-magnetic atom

Electronic impurity-state at magnetic atom

Zn On-site LDOS spectrum: W0=-1.5 meV

Magnetic Ni Atom

Non-magnetic Zn Atom

Bi2Sr2Ca(Cu1-xZnx)2O8+d: x  0.3%

LDOS map at –1.5mV

Ni On-site LDOS spectrum: W1~9 meV, W2~19 meV

      • M.I. Salkola, A.V. Balatsky, J.R. Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. B55, 12648 (1997).
  • M.E. Flatté and J.M. Byers, Sol. State. Phys.52, 137 (1999).
  • Balatsky, A.V., Salkola M.I., & Rosengren, A., Phys. Rev. B51, 15547 (1995).
  • Salkola, M.I., Balatsky, A.V., & Scalapino, D.J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1841 (1996).

Ni impurity-state location and orientation to dx2-y2 gap nodes

+9 mV

LDOS Image at W

|Y|2 for impurity-state

Spin-up

Zn Atom

Closed d-shell

U>>0

S=0

On-site

LDOS Image |Y|2 at both states

  • V(r)=Ud(r)+JS.s
  • |U|>|W| & U<0

32 Å

32 Å

Ni Atom

d8

U<0

S=1

Spin-down

Hole

10,000 Bi atoms

~20 Zn atoms

CuO2 Plane

CuO2 Plane

91118a00 +9mV

!

Run 147: #26

91126K00-19 Typical Spectrum (3a above Ni Center)

91127E00-20 Center Spectrum

91117h14

0 560 Å

3.75” sq. at

1.55”, 2”

3.75” sq. at

5.8”, 2”

0 Å 60 Å

0 Å 60 Å

b

a

0 Å

0 Å

3.8 Å

3.8 Å

0 Å 60 Å

0 Å 60 Å

  • Potential scattering generates intra-gap impurity-state
  • Magnetic interactions lift the spin-degeneracy
  • Two spin-polarized states created at W1 and W2
  • On-site component of both impurity-states is four-fold symmetric,
  • pointing at gap nodes.
  • Potential scattering should generate intra-gap state: Impurity-state is four-fold symmetric
  • Oriented with gap nodes.

Topography (BiO Plane)

Conductance Map, V = -1 mV

0 560 Å

Junction Setpoint: 200 pA @ -200 mV

Junction Setpoint: 200 pA @ -200 mV

Nature 403, 746 (2000).

Nature 403, 746 (2000).

Nature 411 920 (2001).

Nature 411 920 (2001).

Imaging the Effects of Individual Impurity Atoms

in High-Tc Superconductors

E.W. Hudson, K. M. Lang, J. E. Hoffman, S. H. Pan, H. Eisaki, S. Uchida & J. C. Seamus Davis

Bi2Sr2Ca(Cu1-xZnx)2O8+d: x0.3%

Topo.

20,000 Bi atoms

~20 Zn atoms

0 560 Å

0 560 Å

T = 4.2 K

200 pA, -200 mV

Nature 403, 746 (2000).

Zn impurity-state location and orientation to dx2-y2 gap nodes

b

a

Junction Setpoint: 200 pA @ -200 mV

Nature 403, 746 (2000).

Bi2Sr2Ca(Cu1-xNix)2O8+d: x=0.5%

Topo.

256 Å

5000 Bi atoms

~30 Ni atoms

5.5” sq at

1.5”, 2.75”

91114I02

0 Å 256 Å

T = 4.2 K

100 pA, -100 mV

Nature 411 920 (2001).

Bi2Sr2Ca(Cu1-xNix)2O8+d: x=0.5%

LDOS map at +10 mV

256 Å

2500 Bi atoms

~30 Ni atoms

91119c01 +10mV

+10 mV

0 Å 256 Å

T = 4.2 K

100 pA, -100 mV

Nature 411 920 (2001).

Research Support: