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  1. Ancient Greece Chapter 4 1900 BCE 0 133 BCE

  2. Where are we?

  3. Geography of Greece • Long indented coastline • Low-lying rugged mountains • Leads to • Fractured political system • Reliance on the sea •


  5. Minoan Civilization • 2500 – 1450 BCE • Seafaring nation whose power and influence peaked around 1600 BCE • Knossos • Sudden and catastrophic collapse around 1450 • Legend of Atlantis? • • Invasion by Mycenaeans

  6. Mycenaean Civilization • Flourished 1600 – 1100 BC • Indo-European • Made up of a collection of small monarchies • Tholos tomb • Warlike • Agamemnon and Trojan War • Traders

  7. The Dark Ages • 1100 – 750 BCE • Population declines • Food production declines • Few written records • Migrations • Iron replaces bronze • Adoption of the Phoenician alphabet (8th cent. BC)

  8. Homer: Poet or Historian? • Sing O goddess, the anger of Achilles, son of Peleus, that brought countless ills upon the Achaeans. Many a brave soul did it send hurrying down to Hades, and many a hero did it yield a pray to dogs and vultures, for so were the counsels of Jove fulfilled from the day on which the son of Atreus, king of men, and great Achilles, first fell out with one another • The opening lines of the Illiad, an epic poem that tells the story of the Trojan War • Plot summary • Paris (Troy) kidnaps Helen (Sparta) (The Face that launched 1,000 ships” Agamemnon (Spartan King’s brother) attacks Troy. 10 years pass and Achilles fights and dies. Finally the Spartans go away and leave a gift •

  9. The Odyssey • Tell me, O muse, of that ingenious hero who travelled far and wide after he sacked the famous town of Troy. Many cities did he visit, and many were the nations whose manners and customs he was acquainted; moreover he suffered much by sea while trying to save his own life and bring his men safely home; but do what he might he could not save his men, for they perished from their own sheer folly in eating the cattle of the sun-god Hyperion; so the god prevented them from ever reaching home. Tell me, too, about all these things, O daughter of Jove, from whatsoever source you may know them. • Plot • Odysseus tries to get home. He undergoes many problems and eventually makes it to find his wife waiting for him.

  10. Why Homer Matters • His version of history is accepted as factual • Provides an idealized history peopled by heroes • Serves as tales to educate generations to core values: • Courage • Honor • Arete – excellence / virtue – what Greek heroes strive for.

  11. Alcaeus on the Polis • "Not houses finely roofed or the stones of walls well built, nay nor canals and dockyards make the polis, but men able to use their opportunity." • Take a moment to ponder this. What does it mean?

  12. 776 BC The first Olympic Games are held signaling the end of the dark ages Olympia

  13. The Polis (City State) • By 750 BC the Greek polis had become the central focus of Greek life. • What is a polis? • A city, town or village and its surrounding countryside • A meeting place for religious, political or social activities • A community of people who share a common identity and common goals • Citizens had greater rights and greater responsibilities • Great variation in size and population • Athens had > 300,000 people at one time

  14. The Polis Citizens with political rights males Citizens without political rights The Polis Non-citizens

  15. The Acropolis and the Agora • Most city states had a main gathering place that was on a hill. At the top of the hill was a fortified area called the acropolis • Below the acropolis was and open area where people could meet and talk. It also served as a market area. This was called the agora

  16. Impact of the Polis on Greek Culture • Created a sense of community that bonded areas into tightly knit groups where people were committed to that community • Citizen Soldiers • Hoplite • Phalanx •

  17. Something to ponder • Between 750 and 550 BCE Greeks colonized the Mediterranean basin • Come up with at least three reasons why this may have occurred.

  18. Greek Colonies Byzantium • Between 750 and 550 BCE Greeks left their homeland in search of farmland and trade partners • Each colony became a new polis • Byzantium • Creation of wealthy merchant class • Tyranny –rule by force

  19. Athens and Sparta • Tyranny fell out of favor • Two other forms of government • Oligarchy • Democracy • Athens represents democracy • Sparta represents oligarchy

  20. Sparta – The First Totalitarian State? • Sparta did not colonize – they conquered • State is rigidly organized and controls life from birth • Newborns are examined at birth for “fitness” and if found to be wanting, killed • Children are educated by the state • At 7 boys are removed from mother • At 14 they are organized into groups and forced to be self-sufficient-living off inadequate rations plus what they could steal • Compulsory military service 20 – 60 • Must live in barracks till 30 • At 30 they are allowed to vote in assembly

  21. Tell Me What you Know • What does it mean to live in “Spartan” quarters? • What does the phrase “come home with your shield, or on it,” mean?

  22. Spartan Government • Oligarchy • Two kings • Ephors • 28 men over 60 along with kings formed council of elders • Assembly of all male citizens • Limited outside contact

  23. Spartan Women • Occupied a secondary position in society • However • Men live in barracks so they enjoy more freedom and autonomy then women in much of Greece

  24. The Helot Problem • Spartan society divided in to Spartans and helots (captured people) • Helots did the work (farming etc.) • They outnumber the Spartans dramatically • Crypteia (secret police) • Spartans acted as if they were an invading army in their own country and controlled the helots through terror and force

  25. Athens – Democracy’s Birthplace? • 700 BCE finds Athens a unified polis • Ruled by king • Evolves into an oligarchy • Economic crisis • Debtors sold into slavery to repay their debts • Farmers are forced to give 1/6th of their crop to aristocrats • 620 BCE code of laws drawn up by Dracon (very harsh) • 594 BCE Solon is appointed archon (Chief Magistrate) • Abolished debt slavery • Abolished 1/6th to aristocrats

  26. From Tyranny to Democracy • Five years after death of Solon Pisistratus takes power as a tyrant • A tyrant in Ancient Greece was simply a person who had seized power from aristocrats but was neither a king nor a magistrate • Psistratus succeeded by son, Hippias • Hippias is overthrown by Cleisthenes (with support of Spartan army) • Created a council of 500 people that supervised foreign affairs and the treasury and recommended laws to the Athenian assembly- all male citizens • Assembly had central role in Athens- foundations of democracy had been established

  27. Persian War • Conflict with Persia • 499 unsuccessful revolt by Ionian cities helped by Athenian Navy • 490 BC Darius invades battle at Marathon • Pheidippides “Victory, we win” • 480 BC Xerxes invades battles at • Thermopylae • • Salamis • • Plataea •

  28. Major Battles of the Greco-Persian War

  29. Why it matters • Persian War ends with Athens as the dominant force in Greece • Athenian Empire • Athens takes leadership role in Greek world forms Delian League which pursues war with Persia and frees most Greek states from Persian control

  30. The Age of Pericles • 661 – 429 BCE (A “Golden Age”) • Direct Democracy • All male citizens > 18 (circa 43,000) • Meetings every 10 days near Acropolis • Rich and poor had a voice • Officeholders were paid

  31. Peloponnesian War • Athens and Sparta become rivals – their systems are mutually exclusive • 431 War breaks out • Athenian strategy get behind walls and wait • Spartan strategy draw out Athenians • 430 Plague breaks out in Athens • 405 Battle of Aegospotami ends with destruction of Athenian navy

  32. Sparta / Athens Use the following words to complete the Venn Diagram: polis, totalitarian, oligarchy, democracy, helot, Pericles, Solon, Leonides, “The 300”, ephors, tyranny, led Delian League, fought against Persia, expanded through conquest, expanded through colonization, strong army, strong navy

  33. Sparta / Athens Use the following words to complete the Venn Diagram: polis, totalitarian, oligarchy, democracy, helot, Pericles, Solon, Leonides, “The 300”, ephors, tyranny, led Delian League, fought against Persia, expanded through conquest, expanded through colonization, strong army, strong navy Sparta Totalitarian Leonides Helot Ephors Expanded through conquest Strong army “The 300” Athens Solon Pericles Democracy Expanded through colonization Strong navy Led Delian League Tyranny Oligarchy Fought against Persia Polis

  34. Greek Religion • Religion is central to Greek life • Not a force for morality • No real doctrine • Rituals matter • Shrines and oracles play a key role • Gods lived on Mt. Olympus

  35. The Olympians

  36. Greek Gods • Zeus • Chief god and father of gods • Hera • Zeus’s wife • Athena • Goddess of wisdom • Apollo • God of sun and poetry • Ares • God of war • Aphrodite • Goddess of love • Poseidon • Zeus’s brother and god of sea and earthquakes • Hestia • Goddess of the hearth • Hephaestus • God of crafting and metalwork • Artemis • Goddess of the hunt • Hermes • Messenger god • Hades • God of the underworld

  37. Tragedies Dealth with universal themes of human existence that are still relevant today Good v. evil Rights of individuals Examples Oresteia (Aeschylus) Oedipus Rex (Sophocles) Medea (Euripedes) Comedies Purpose is to entertain and provoke a reaction. Could be used to poke fun at politicians Examples The Frogs (Aristophanes) Greek Theater

  38. Greek Philosophy • Philosophy • From Greek meaning “Lover of wisdom” • Sophists • Traveling teachers who stressed rhetoric • The “Big Three) • Socrates • Goal of education is to improve the individual • Question everything (Socratic method) • The unexamined life is not worth living • Plato • How do we know what is real? • Forms ((Allegory of the cave) • The Republic • Philosopher Kings • Warriors • Masses • Aristotle • Analysis by observation and investigation • Politics • Monarchy • Aristocracy • Constitutional Government

  39. Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

  40. From Philip to Alexander • Macedonia (barbarians) • Philip II (359 BCE) • Murdered at banquet • Alexander takes throne in 336 BCE (at age 20!) • Creates one of the largest land empires ever. • Dies in 323 at 32

  41. The Aftermath • Empire breaks up into 4 Kingdoms • Ptolemaic • Antigonid • Seleucid • Greece • Hellenistic means “Greek like”

  42. Hellenistic Culture • Cultural Diffusion! • Architecture / sculpture • Maintained technical skill but moved to more emotional themes • Literature - prolific • Argonautica • Science - Astronomy / mathematics • Eratosthenes • Euclid • Archimedes • Philosophy • Epicureanism • Stoicism

  43. From Greece to Rome • • • • •

  44. Where are we?

  45. Adriatic Sea Mediterranean Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Po River Tiber River Rubicon River Alps Apennines Mt. Etna Mt. Vesuvius Corsica Sicily Sardinia Rome Ostia Carthage

  46. Adriatic Sea Mediterranean Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Po River Tiber River Rubicon River Alps Apennines Mt. Etna Mt. Vesuvius Corsica Sicily Sardinia Rome Ostia Carthage