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Data Analysis: Using Data to Inform Instruction. Dr. Tracey Severns. Introductions – Who am I?. Background Check Teacher Vice Principal & Principal Superintendent Researcher Presenter Student. Teachers/Leaders need to be educated consumers and users of data in order to:.

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introductions who am i
Introductions – Who am I?

Background Check

  • Teacher
  • Vice Principal & Principal
  • Superintendent
  • Researcher
  • Presenter
  • Student
teachers leaders need to be educated consumers and users of data in order to
Teachers/Leaders need to be educatedconsumers and users of data in order to:
  • Evaluate progress and performance
  • Establish goals and mobilize efforts
  • Leverage resources
  • Inform practice
  • Guide decision-making
  • Market results
we re going to
We’re going to:
  • Gain insight into the uses of data
  • Learn how to “unpack” the scores
  • Learn to ask questions of the data
  • Discuss how to use data to improve teaching and learning
when working with data use three reference points
When working with data, use three reference points.
  • How are we doing compared to standard? (Proficiency)
  • How are we doing compared to ourselves? (Progress)
  • How are we doing compared to others? (Relative performance)
according to just for the kids www just4kids org
According to Just for the Kids…
  • Students who have been continually enrolled in the school for at least one year.
  • Schools that have an equal or greater number of economically disadvantaged students and students with limited English proficiency.
as victoria bernhardt says
As Victoria Bernhardt says…

“Disaggregation is not a

problem-solving strategy,

it is a problem-finding strategy.”

possible disaggregates include
Possible disaggregates include
  • Gender
  • Enrollment in special programs
  • Ethnicity
  • School, class, level
  • SES
  • Years in the district
  • Course sequence
simpson s paradox
Simpson’s Paradox
  • Has nothing to do with Homer.
  • Beware of changes in groups over time whenever the aggregate data show one pattern and the disaggregated, subgroup data show the opposite.
consider this
Consider this…

SAT Scores 2002 SAT Scores 2007

Mean = 480 Mean = 478

At a BOE meeting, people demand to know, “Why are SAT scores dropping?”

But are they?

let s examine the data
Let’s examine the data

SAT Scores 2002 SAT Scores 2007

500 510

500 510

500 510

500 510

500 510

500 510

500 430

500 430

400 430


Mean = 480 Mean = 478

take a look at the scores
Take a look at the scores.

In 2002, the 500s represent scores of white students and 400s represent scores of black students.

In 2007, the 510s represent scores of white students and 430s represent scores of black students.

so what happened
So what happened?

White students’ scores went up 10 points.

Black students’ scores went up 30 points.


In 2002, 80% were white, 20% were black.

In 2007, 60% were white, 40% were black.

and so
And so…
  • Although the SAT scores for both groups increased, the overall mean decreased because there was a higher percentage of minority students taking the test.
  • Thus, beware of shifts in subgroup proportion and performance over time.
simpson s paradox at work
Simpson’s Paradox at work…

Ethnic Group 1981 2005 Gain

White 519 529 +10

Black 412 433 +21

Asian 474 511 +37

Mexican 438 453 +15

Puerto Rican 437 460 +23

Am Indian 471 489 +18

All Students 504 508 +4

beware of means
Beware of Means…

The mean is only one measure of central tendency. Often, the mode or median is a more accurate descriptor of the group’s performance.

When a teacher tries to teach something to the entire class at the same time, “chances are, one-third of the kids already know it; one-third will get it; and the remaining third won’t. So two-thirds of the children are wasting their time.”

- Lillian Katz

monitoring student progress
Monitoring Student Progress

Research has found that student achievement increases a full standard deviation when teachers test first, then teach, then test.

When you pre-test, you determine the degree of mastery of prerequisite skills.

You need to know where students are in order to teach them effectively.

look beneath the surface
Look beneath the surface
  • Enter the data in a spread sheet.
  • Total each row (student performance)
  • Total each column (item analysis)
data analysis
Data Analysis
  • What trends do you find in the data?
  • To what would you attribute the results?
  • What questions come to mind when you review the data?
  • What recommendations would you make to improve student performance?
assessing student progress
Assessing Student Progress

Close the gaps between the

  • Written curriculum
  • Taught curriculum
  • Assessed curriculum
in other words
In other words…
  • Did we teach what we said we would?
  • Did they learn what they were supposed to learn?
time for a test
Time for a Test

Create a question to assess mastery of the following standard:

SWBAT understand and use percents.

swbat understand and use
SWBAT understand and use %
  • 50% of 40
  • 34% of 67
  • 26 is 40% of what number?
  • In a town election, 5985 people voted. This is 63% of the town’s registered voters. How many people are registered to vote?
swbat understand and use27
SWBAT understand and use %
  • You deposit $1200 into a savings account that earns 3% interest compounded annually. Find the balance of the account after 2 years.
  • Describe how to find your percent increase in height from last year to this year. Show how to find this percent using a proportion.
common quarterly assessments
Common Quarterly Assessments

What evidence do we need to demonstrate mastery of the standard?

1. Create common tests

2. Schedule assessments in advance

3. Analyze student performance

4. Re-teach/implement interventions

5. Retest

district writing assessment
District Writing Assessment

Ensures an annual assessment of writing skills for all students in grades 3-9.

Allows teachers to target weaknesses and track student progress over time.

Provides the best PD the district can offer

step 1 collection
Step 1: Collection

1. Plot and analyze the data

2. Look for patterns by question type

(multi choice vs. constructed response)

3. Examine frequency of “distracters.”

4. Look for patterns by skill/content area

5. Look for patterns by student subgroups

debrief the test
Debrief the Test

Ask the kids!

  • Did the test match your expectations?
  • How did you prepare for the test?
  • What would you do differently next time?
  • What should I do differently next time?
step 2 examination
Step 2 - Examination

Examine the patterns

  • Allocate adequate time
  • Involve multiple people/perspectives
  • Proceed systematically
for example
For example:

For criterion-referenced tests

  • All students by content area (LA)
  • All students by skill/content
  • All students by question type
  • Subgroups by skill/content
  • Subgroups by question type
  • Individual students by benchmarks
step 3 interpretation
Step 3 - Interpretation

1. Turn numbers into pictures!

2. Summarize observations

3. Describe patterns of strengths

4. Identify areas of concern

5. Generate hypotheses/potential causes

6. Prioritize problems/areas of concern

step 4 take action
Step 4 – Take Action

Establish Goals. Get SMARTS

S Specific and clearly articulated

M Measurable

A Attainable

R Results-oriented

T Time-bound

S Supported by all stakeholders

develop an action plan
Develop an Action Plan.
  • What do I want to know?
  • What data do I need?
  • Where and when can I obtain the data?
  • What will I do with the data?
  • Who needs to know the information?
does it really matter
Does it really matter?

Marzano and Stronge’s research:

One year with an ineffective teacher takes three consecutive years with a highly effective teacher to catch up.

The end!

Thank you for coming!

If you have any questions, contact me at: