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Developing and Testing an Environmentally Friendly Firelog Using a Bio-based Binder. Cornelis F. deHoop, Associate Professor Louisiana Forest Products Development Center School of Renewable Natural Resources LSU Agricultural Center. Sponsors.

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developing and testing an environmentally friendly firelog using a bio based binder

Developing and Testing an Environmentally Friendly Firelog Usinga Bio-based Binder

Cornelis F. deHoop, Associate Professor

Louisiana Forest Products Development Center

School of Renewable Natural Resources

LSU Agricultural Center

sponsors
Sponsors
  • SERBEP - Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program
  • Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry
purpose
Purpose

To develop a firelog utilizing an agricultural, non-petroleum binder with wood residue that produces lower emissions than firewood or commercial firelogs when combusted.

firelogs currently available
Firelogs Currently Available
  • “Presto logs”
    • very dense and difficult to light.
    • no binder added.
    • use high pressures to form.
  • Petroleum-based wax
    • helps decrease density.
    • promotes ignition and combustion.
the project consisted of two parts
The project consisted of two parts:

1. Firelog development

2. Air emission tests

firelog development
Firelog Development

Concentrated on different binders that were not petroleum based.

  • rice starch
  • sugarcane wax
  • soybean wax

The soybean wax was selected for further testing.

instruments
Instruments

Gas Analyzers

  • CO
  • CO2
  • O2
  • Total Hydrocarbons, THC

Mass Spectrometer

  • CO2
  • NOx
  • O2
  • SOx
air emissions testing1
Air Emissions Testing
  • The testing consisted of three replications.
  • Five commercial firelogs, red oak firewood, and 25%, 33%, 50%, and 60% soy-wax firelogs.
  • Data on CO2, CO, O2, THC, and NOx.
  • Other parameters measured were stack flow rate, particulates, temperatures, and weight change during combustion.
emission results
Emission Results
  • The results for SOx, and NOx were negligible for all of the burns.
  • The results for O2 were the inverse of the results for CO2.
  • The results for CO, CO2, and THC are discussed in the following slides.
carbon dioxide results
Carbon Dioxide Results
  • Variations in CO2 output could not be explained by firelog type.
  • No statistical difference in output between commercial firelogs, oak firewood or the soybean wax firelogs.
  • In the soybean wax firelogs, CO2 output increased with an increase in wax content. (linear contrast: p > 0.0078)
carbon monoxide results
Carbon Monoxide Results
  • The soybean wax firelogs:
    • produced 32% less CO than the commercial firelogs tested.
    • produced 60% less CO than the oak firewood tested.
    • produced less CO as the wax content increased.
  • The commercial firelogs:
    • produced 42% less CO than the oak firewood tested.
total hydrocarbons results
Total Hydrocarbons Results

The soybean wax firelogs:

  • produced 66% less THC than the commercial firelogs tested.
  • produced 55% less THC than the oak firewood tested.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The soybean wax firelogs produced fewer CO and THC emissions than the oak firewood tested.
  • The commercial firelogs produced fewer CO emissions than the oak firewood tested.
conclusions1
Conclusions
  • The soybean wax firelogs produced fewer CO and THC emissions the commercial firelogs tested.
  • Based on the assumption that the oak firewood and commercial firelogs tested are a representative sample of what is being used, the soybean wax firelogs produce less CO and THC emissions than what is available on the market.
conclusions2
Conclusions
  • CO2 emissions did not vary with firewood or firelog type.
  • CO2 emissions for the soybean wax firelogs increased with an increase in wax content.
  • CO emissions for the soybean wax firelogs were lower with an increase in wax content.
trends
Trends
  • As expected, the CO2 emissions were highest early in the burn.
  • With CO and THC the peaks were different.
    • CO and THC peaks for oak firewood were similar to CO2.
    • CO and THC peaks for commercial firelogs and the 60% soybean wax firelogs occurred late in the burn.
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Improved firelog production process: multiple firelogs
  • Development of a wrapper to promote ignition.
  • Testing of a more malleable wax.
  • Increase the replications performed.
  • Market research to ascertain potential demand.
slide26

Questions?

cdehoop@lsu.edu

(225) 578-4242