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BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS. BY BELEWU , M.A ( Ph.D ) UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN NIGERIA

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biofuel production in nigeria challenges and prospects

BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

BY

BELEWU, M.A (Ph.D)

UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN

NIGERIA

Paper presented at the 12th National / International Conference of the Students’ Chemical Society of Nigeria—Fountain University, Oshogbo, Osun State, Nigeria on the 30th June , 2011.

introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • Biofuels in Nigeria offer a great opportunity for the production of new cash crops for internal consumption and for export. The increase production could be felt mostly in the rural areas as resources will be shifted from traditional crops while prices for all agricultural commodities are increase.
what is biofuel
WHAT IS BIOFUEL ?
  • Biofuel /Biodiesel is commonly defined as “renewable energy produced from biological materials / biomass (sugar cane , corn, cellulose, vegetable oil etc)
  • Biofuelsare fuel that are degradable and non toxic
  • Biofuels refer also to any solid, liquid or gas fuel that has been derived from biomass
contd
CONTD
  • Biofuels could include biobuthanol (biogasoline) and biodiesel as well as other fuel made from biomass and use for automotives , thermal and power generation according to specification stipulated by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON), Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and any other competent government agency ( Nigerian Biofuel Policy,2010).
types of biofuels
TYPES OF BIOFUELS
  • Liquid Biofuel --------Biodiesel
  • Gaseous Biofuel-------Ethanol
  • Solid Biofuel----------wood, saw dust , grass cutting, domestic refuse, charcoal, agricultural wastes, non food energy crops e.gJatropha plant
different generations of biofuels
DIFFERENT GENERATIONS OF BIOFUELS
  • There are different generations of biofuels thus :
  • First Generation of Biofuel
  • Fuel made from sugar cane/ vegetable oil, animal fats using advanced Technology
  • Second Generation of Biofuel
  • Biofuel produced from sustainable feedstock
  • It focused on biomass to liquid technology including cellulosic biofuels and non food crops –Jatropha plant
third generation of biofuel
Third Generation of Biofuel
  • It includes biofuel from algae. It produces 30 times more energy than soybean
fourth generation of biofuel
Fourth Generation of Biofuel
  • It focused on the conversion of biodiesel to gasoline
what is biomass
WHAT IS BIOMASS ?
  • Biomass means agriculturally produced raw materials which are available on renewable / recurring basis.
  • It include tree crops, plant fibre , cellulose based materials, industrial wastes and other biodegradable parts of municipal solid waste (Nigeria Biofuel Policy Development and Incentives, 2010)
  • Biomass could also be defined as biological materials obtained from living or recently living organisms
  • It could also be plant materials grown to generate electricity/ produce heat
  • Biomass could be converted into other useful forms of energy—methane gas/ transportation fuels----like ethanol/biodiesel
sources of biomass
SOURCES OF BIOMASS

It includes:

  • Wood ---- It is a typical source of biomass
  • Corn/Maize
  • Sugar cane
  • Soybean
what is biodiesel
WHAT IS BIODIESEL ?
  • It refers to a vegetable oil/ animal fat based diesel fuel obtained by chemically reacting liquids (vegetable oil, animal fat ) with alcohol through the process of transesterification
variety of oil used to produce biodiesel
VARIETY OF OIL USED TO PRODUCE BIODIESEL
  • Soybean oil
  • Rape seed oil
  • Mustard oil
  • Sunflower oil
  • Palm oil
  • Coconut oil
  • Waste vegetable oil
  • Animal fat
  • By- products of Omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil
  • Algae
  • Oil from Halophytes e.g. Salicorniabigelovii
variety of crop used for ethanol production
Variety of Crop used for Ethanol Production
  • Sugar cane
  • Cassava
  • Sugar beet
  • Corn
  • Other sugar/starch crops etc
merits of biodiesel
MERITS OF BIODIESEL
  • It has better lubricating properties and much higher cetane ratings
  • It reduces fuel system wear
  • Calorific value is about 37.27MJ/kg which is 90% lower than petrol diesel
  • It gives complete combustion thus increasing the engine energy output and partially compensating for the higher energy density of petrol-diesel
  • It has no sulphurcontent
merits of biodiesel contd
MERITS OF BIODIESEL (Contd)
  • Its flash point is 1500c ( temperature of ignition)
  • It is less flammable than petrol-diesel and burn at 500C
  • It loose viscosity- (gel ) at lower temperature when compared to petro-diesel
  • Biodiesel can be blended with conventional diesel in any concentration
  • Jatropha oil is 10 times higher than that of maize and soybean
  • Jatropha nuts could provide up to 1,650 liters of high quality biodiesel /hectare
blending of biodiesel ethanol with petrol diesel
BLENDING OF BIODIESEL/ ETHANOL WITH PETROL-DIESEL
  • Biodiesel can be used alone / blended with petrol-diesel in standard diesel engine
  • In Nigeria , the recommendation was blending of up to 10% of fuel ethanol with gasoline (10% ethanol plus 90% petroleum)…….known as E-10
  • In USA/UK a blending of 15% ethanol plus 85% petroleum is recommended
  • Also, 20% ethanol plus 80% petroleum is recognized
biodiesel mixing
Biodiesel mixing
  • In Nigeria , up to 20% biodiesel with petroldiesel was recommended ….known as B-20
  • In USA/UK, 100% biodiesel ------known as B100 was achieved
  • 20% biodiesel with 80% petro-diesel ---B20 etc
  • 10% biodiesel with 90 petrol diesel---B10
practical uses of biodiesel
PRACTICAL USES OF BIODIESEL
  • University of Ilorin in 2010 used a blend of 50:50 (Biodiesel plus petroldiesel) to power a milling machine during an International workshop on Jatrophacurcasheld in April, 2010
contd1
CONTD
  • British Train Operating Company (Virgin Trains ) claimed to have run the world first biodiesel train using 80% petroldiesel with 20% biodiesel
  • Royal train in 2007 completed its first ever journey on 100% biodiesel fuel
  • I n Czech, a jet was completely powered on bidiesel
merits of biofuel
MERITS OF BIOFUEL
  • Reduction of Green House Gas emission as compared to the fossil fuel e.g. Jatropha plant ( A plant can absorbed 8kg of carbondioxide per tree/year, hence if there are 2500 stands of trees per hectare ---about 20,000kg of carbondioxide will be absorbed/year
  • The biodiesel which is environmentally friendly than fossil fuel is smokeless , carbon neutral and ecologically sound
  • It saves drivers money--- United Kingdom government introduced many incentives to drivers of green cars based on emission ----with reduced taxation which depends on how environmentally your car is.
merits of biofuel contd
MERITS OF BIOFUEL (Contd)
  • With increasing prices of petrol, mixing biodiesel with fossil fuel also offers great saving at the pump in the long run when biodiesel is readily available
  • There is additional tax revenue for the Government from economic activities of such industry
  • Biofuel has the ability of uplifting many people from poverty to financial independence, from despair to respect and from unemployment to business owners
  • Bbiofuel will reduce dependence on fossil fuel
  • Biofuel provides better lubrication and with fewer residues in the engine after its burning
merits of biofuel contd1
MERITS OF BIOFUEL (Contd)
  • Biofuel is completely biodegradable
  • Better utilization of undulated cultivable land
  • Higher income from sales of glycerin to industry
  • Less generation period of Jatropha plant compared to other non edible crops
  • Long life span (40-50 years)
  • Wider market for biofuel
merits of biofuel contd2
MERITS OF BIOFUEL (Contd)
  • Jatropha plant is non edible compared to other crops
  • Opportunity of having carbon credit value (Kyoto protocol)
  • Biodiesel gives you bigger boom with more power
  • It was reported that a car on biodiesel could run at 27 miles /gallon
  • Provision of new income and new opportunity for farmers
  • Higher income of by-products –glycerin for industrial purpose
  • Poverty reduction potentials
concerns about biofuels
CONCERNS ABOUT BIOFUELS
  • Biodiversity --- It was argued that natural habitats will be lost for wild animals and plants
  • Food vs Fuel ------ That farmers might loose focus of food production if fuel plants are lucrative
  • Less food production may lead to high price of food stuffs resulting in inflation
  • Inclement weather condition
  • It could lead to deforestation
  • There could be variable output and oil content
  • Political problems (Inconsistent government policies)
concerns about biofuels1
CONCERNS ABOUT BIOFUELS
  • Technical problems (from harvesting to production)
  • Resource constraints
  • Lack of public awareness
  • Protectionism ---In form of import tarrifs and other barriers that hinders biofuel trades
  • Integration of biofuel into fuel supply chain
  • Lack of international agreement on fuel quality standards
  • Many oil companies have been resistant to the blending of biofuel with their products
  • More land is needed for the growth of biofuel plants as resource for biofuel
sustainablilty of biofuel production
SUSTAINABLILTY OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
  • It is noteworthy that first generation biofuels are not sustainable
  • Hence it is necessary to create sustainable biofuel production with no effect on food production and environment.
  • The most common strategy is to grow plants that could produce oil naturally e.g. oil palm, Jatropha plant, soybean, algae
  • An enabling environment must be created by the government for all players in the industry
contd2
CONTD
  • When the oil is heated , the resistance / viscosity is reduced
  • The oil must be burnt with diesel engine
  • The oil can be processed into biodiesel
  • It was found that by 2020, about 19 million tons of oil equivalent would be derived from biomass
  • Additionally, between 2000 and 2005 ethanol production has doubled while biodiesel production was quadrupled hence biofuels are rising.
conclusion and recommendation
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
  • It interesting to note that there exists a large potential of bioenergy production in many countries of the world that are yet to be tapped.
  • Hence production and utilization of biofuel in Nigeria can potentially help solve the economic, social and environmental problems, if appropriate policies and related institutional and technological innovations are promoted.
pix showing participants at the conference on jatropha curcas university of ilorin nigeria
Pix showing participants at the conference on Jatrophacurcas(University of Ilorin, Nigeria)
merci beaucoup
MERCI BEAUCOUP

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION