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Bayes’ Theorem. Suppose we have estimated prior probabilities for events we are concerned with, and then obtain new information. We would like to a sound method to computed revised or posterior probabilities. Bayes’ theorem gives us a way to do this.

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bayes theorem
Bayes’ Theorem

Suppose we have estimated prior probabilities for events we are concerned with, and then obtain new information. We would like to a sound method to computed revised or posterior probabilities. Bayes’ theorem gives us a way to do this.

probability revision using bayes theorem
Probability Revision using Bayes’ Theorem

Prior

Probabilities

New

Information

Application of

Bayes’

Theorem

Posterior

Probabilities

application of bayes theorem
Application of Bayes’ Theorem
  • Consider a manufacturing firm that receives shipment of parts from two suppliers.
  • Let A1 denote the event that a part is received from supplier 1; A2is the event the part is received from supplier 2
slide4

We get 65 percent of our parts from supplier 1 and 35 percent from supplier 2.

Thus:

P(A1) = .65 and P(A2) = .35

quality levels differ between suppliers
Quality levels differ between suppliers

Let G denote that a part is good and B denote the event that a part is bad. Thus we have the following conditional probabilities:

P(G| A1 ) = .98 and P(B | A2 ) = .02

P(G| A2) = .95 and P(B | A2 ) = .05

tree diagram for two supplier example
Tree Diagram for Two-Supplier Example

Step 2Condition

ExperimentalOutcome

Step 1Supplier

(A1, G)

G

A1

B

(A1, B)

A2

(A2, G)

G

B

(A2, B)

slide7

Each of the experimental outcomes is the intersection of 2 events. For example, the probability of selecting a part from supplier 1 that is good is given by:

probability tree for two supplier example
Probability Tree for Two-Supplier Example

Step 2Condition

Step 1Supplier

Probability of Outcome

P(G | A1)

.98

P(A1)

P(B | A2)

.65

.02

P(B | A2)

P(A2)

.95

.35

P(B | A2)

.05

slide9

A bad part broke one of our machines—so we’re through for the day. What is the probability the part came from suppler 1?

We know from the law of conditional probability that:

(4.14)

Observe from the probability tree that:

(4.15)

slide10

The probability of selecting a bad part is found by adding together the probability of selecting a bad part from supplier 1 and the probability of selecting bad part from supplier 2.

That is:

(4.16)

bayes theorem for 2 events
Bayes’ Theorem for 2 events

By substituting equations (4.15) and (4.16) into (4.14), and writing a similar result for P(B | A2), we obtain Bayes’ theorem for the 2 event case:

exercise 41 p 187
Exercise 41, p. 187
  • A consulting firm submitted a bid for a large consulting contract. The firm’s management felt id had a 50-50 change of landing the project. However, the agency to which the bid was submitted subsequently asked for additional information. Past experience indicates that that for 75% of successful bids and 40% of unsuccessful bids the agency asked for additional information.
    • What is the prior probability of the bid being successful (that is, prior to the request for additional information).
    • What is the conditional probability of a request for additional information given that the bid will be ultimately successful.
    • Compute the posterior probability that the bid will be successful given a request for additional information.
exercise 41 p 1871
Exercise 41, p. 187

Let S1 denote the event of successfully obtaining the project.

S2 is the event of not obtaining the project.

B is the event of being asked for additional information about a bid.

  • P(S1) = .5
  • P(B | S1) = .75
  • Use Bayes’ theorem to compute the posterior probability that a request for information indicates a successful bid.