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The Latin West. The Latin West. In western Europe, Latin Christianity converts the peoples of many tribes (Goths early on, but other Germanic peoples later: the Magyars and the Vikings) 5 th -11 th century: missionary work and military expedition Muslim pockets in Spain and Sicily

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the latin west1
The Latin West
  • In western Europe, Latin Christianity converts the peoples of many tribes (Goths early on, but other Germanic peoples later: the Magyars and the Vikings)
  • 5th-11th century: missionary work and military expedition
  • Muslim pockets in Spain and Sicily
  • Isolated Jewish communities
the latin west2
The Latin West
  • 1. The birth of Latin Christendom
    • New Germanic kingdoms = new kind of society
      • Borrowed from Roman law, but also traditional rule
      • Unification based in a. Loyalty / Kinship (versus citizenship; b. Common faith (links rulers with subjects); c. Common language (Latin: for worship, learning, diplomacy)
      • These kingdoms appear in Anglo-Saxon England, Frankish Gaul, Visigothic Spain, Lombard Italy
the latin west3
The Latin West
  • 1. The birth of Latin Christendom
    • New Germanic kingdoms = new kind of society
    • England
      • Far enough away from Rome that civilization collapses further than other places (5th c. Angle and Saxon invasions define their history)
      • Fragmentation due to war of Angles and Saxons vs. Roman Britons till 750; 8th c. the three warring kingdoms that dominate are Mercia, Wessex, and Northumbria
the latin west4
The Latin West
  • 1. The birth of Latin Christendom
    • New Germanic kingdoms = new kind of society
    • England
    • Gaul (France)
      • 3rd-7th c. Franks produced largest and most powerful kingdom in western Europe
      • Merovingian Franks in power first (Childeric 460-481; his son Clovis 481-511)
      • Carolingian Franks take over in the 8th c. (Charles Martel 719-741; his son Pepin the Short 741-768 becomes king of the Franks relying on the Pope’s legitimization)
the latin west5
The Latin West
  • 1. The birth of Latin Christendom
    • New Germanic kingdoms = new kind of society
    • England
    • Gaul (France)
    • Spain
      • Visigoths (mostly Arians); they don’t allow the Franks to conquer Spain
      • Muslims invade in 711; only in the northwestern part of the peninsula are some able to keep Christianity alive
the latin west6
The Latin West
  • 1. The birth of Latin Christendom
    • New Germanic kingdoms = new kind of society
    • England
    • Gaul (France)
    • Spain
    • Italy
      • Germanic Lombards (=“long-beards”) control northern and central peninsula 568-774.
      • Invaded Italy due to weakness of Byzantine attempts at reconquest
      • Different ethnic tribes: led to lack of unity and strength to come
      • Constant fight against Byzantine forces and internal strife; eventually overcome by the Franks (Charlemagne)
the latin west7
The Latin West
  • 2. The spread of Latin Christianity
    • A spread through missionary work (polytheism and Arianism to monotheism and orthodoxy/catholicity); conventional religion in the cities (the preaching of the bishops); and monastic mission (monasteries become the centers of intellectual life, a change from aristocratic Rome)
the latin west8
The Latin West
  • 2. The spread of Latin Christianity
    • A spread through missionary work; conventional religion; and monasticism
    • Papacy
      • Byzantium still has political authority in theory
      • Popes handle local affairs as Byzantium has some violent problems
      • Gregory the Great (590-604)
        • No relief from Constantinople
        • Therefore diplomacy with western kings (friendly ones)
        • Paves spread of Christianity in Germany and England
        • Trains clergymen
        • All this sets the stage for increase in papal power
        • By 8th c., they seek protection from Frankish kings, no longer Constantinople
the latin west9
The Latin West
  • 2. The spread of Latin Christianity
    • A spread through missionary work; conventional religion; and monasticism
    • Papacy
    • Irish and Anglo-Saxons
      • 431: missionaries in Ireland
      • Patrick (+492) converts all of Ireland
      • No cities in Ireland; monasteries train the country parsons
      • Columba (521-597) in Scotland
      • Missionaries use cross-cultural methods (temples and traditions; calendar conventions)
the latin west10
The Latin West
  • 2. The spread of Latin Christianity
    • A spread through missionary work; conventional religion; and monasticism
    • Papacy
    • Irish and Anglo-Saxons
    • Monasticism
      • Vigorous from the time of Benedict (480-547) and his Rule
      • Reading the Bible and the classics: a contemplative life
      • At least two rooms: scriptorium and library
      • Bede (+735): History of the English Church and People
      • Promoted some literacy in their domains (with administrative benefits)
the latin west11
The Latin West
  • 3. Carolingians
    • Merovingians give way to the Franks, 751
    • Pepin’s sons share the kingdom until 771; Charlemagne survives; becomes mightiest ruler in western Europe.
      • Constant warfare, esp. against polytheistic German tribes: a. spread Christianity; b. protect borders; c. satisfy followers (aristocracy) with new lands and plunder
      • Result: network of subservient kingdoms and tribute
      • Coronation 12/25/800ad: an imitation of Rome, and an obligation to protect the Roman Popes; Frankish protection = legitimacy of divine sanction
the latin west12
The Latin West
  • 3. Carolingians
    • Merovingians give way to the Franks, 751
    • Charlemagne
    • Carolingian empire
      • Lack army, navy, civil servants, good roads, communication, money economy … so it’s not exactly Roman empire reborn.
      • Contrast Byzantium and Muslim caliphates
      • Result: personal forms of rule rather than institutional ones
      • Written decrees instead of oral ones (Alcuin (732-804) becomes important)
      • Administration by “counties” (hence “count”)
      • Church provides structure for adminstration: Carolingians appoint (and sell) offices
the latin west13
The Latin West
  • 4. After Charlemagne
    • Louis the Pious inherits Charlemagne’s throne in 814
    • Divides kingdom among his three sons (Treaty of Verdun 843, after years of fighting between Charles the Bald +877 [West Francia], Lothar +855 [Middle Kingdom], Louis the German +876 [East Francia])
    • Laws of inheritance further fragment holdings in succeeding generations; Carolingians die out by 987.
    • Post-Carolingian Europe fragmented as local aristocrats fill the vacuum, but are vulnerable to new invaders.
the latin west14
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • By 900, Latin Christianity is limited to Frankish lands, Italy, parts of Germany under Carolingian rule, British Isles, and a little bit of Spain. 9th-10th c. invasions come from polytheistic tribes (Vikings and Magyars) and Muslims (from Africa to Italy); missionary activity continues to convert the West to Christianity.
the latin west15
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
      • Magyars and Vikings; 8th-11th centuries.
      • Some looted and returned home; others settled
      • Magyars entered from the Eurasian Steppe; plundered and enslaved; finally stopped by Otto I (955)
      • Finally Christianized (Latin), Christmas Day 1000ad
      • Vikings = Norsemen = Northmen (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
      • Plundered for silver
      • Eventually wintered on the continental and insular shores; creating communities (and armies): created Viking settlements like Normandy (the conquerors of the English)
      • Cultural impact: mythology and literature (cf. Beowulf)
the latin west16
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
      • Magyars and Vikings; 8th-11th centuries.
        • Some looted and returned home; others settled
        • Magyars entered from the Eurasian Steppe; plundered and enslaved; finally stopped by Otto I (955)
        • Finally Christianized (Latin), Christmas Day 1000ad
the latin west17
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
      • Magyars and Vikings; 8th-11th centuries.
        • Vikings = Norsemen = Northmen (Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
        • Plundered for silver
        • Eventually wintered on the continental and insular shores; creating communities (and armies): created Viking settlements like Normandy (the conquerors of the English)
        • Cultural impact: mythology and literature (cf. Beowulf)
        • 870: Iceland; 10th c. sagas of Eric the Red etc.
        • 10th c. Scandinavian kings control the raiders; convert to Christianity and bring their constituency with them
the latin west18
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
    • Rulers
      • Carolingian rule disintegrates, leading to rule by local warlords
      • Provide protection in a period of anarchy
      • Kinship and loyalty as virtues give way to dominion of lords over vassals
      • Vassalage – the personal relationship often came with a grant of land (the fief)
      • Fief could supply income for weapons and horses, necessary for a knight (12th c. term)
      • This connection between the fief and the lord-vassal relationship is what we call FEUDALISM
the latin west19
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
    • Rulers
      • Rulers fill the void left by kings: judges over property, inheritance, sentencing criminals, etc.
      • The vassalage relationship continued down the clientela pyramid (recall clients and patrons from ancient Rome)
      • Some lords could have competing holdings of land, and some vassals could conceivably have loyalty to more than one lord
      • Women could inherit (but no military service)
      • Vassals owe service, including military service, advice, judgment of peers, travel room and board, certain fees, ransom
the latin west20
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
    • Rulers
      • Being king in such an economy was difficult: lords are independent-minded, and feudalism is more real in a local and everyday way than the relationship of king and subject
      • Loyalty paid off for some lords and the kings who pulled the strings: they were given royal prerogatives by kings (rights to receive fines, collect taxes, etc.: “feudal kingship”)
      • The necessary myth of the sacred nature of kingship allowed many to hold sway over the lords of the land (with the help of the clergy)
the latin west21
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
    • Rulers
      • East Francia (German empire) 10th-11th c.
        • Germanic tribes, led by a Frankish official (duke) till 919
        • Dukes of Saxony were kings after this; sought to acquire other duchies, appointed family to high church offices
        • Greatest of the Saxon kings: Otto I (the great) 936-973
        • Supported missionary work in Scandinavia and Slavic lands
        • Pope crowned him in 962
        • German empire in 1030’s: Germanic duchies, northern Italy, Burgundy (collectively known as “Holy Roman Empire”)
        • Patronized literati, a period known as the “Ottonian Renaissance”
the latin west22
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
    • Rulers
      • East Francia (German empire) 10th-11th c.
      • West Francia (France) 10th-11th c.
        • Capetians take over after the Carolingians, 987.
        • Began around Paris (Hugh Capet’s feudal domain); under his rule, all of West Francia becomes known as “France”
        • Elevated as “king of West Francia” at a ceremony with prayers from the Archbishop: a precedent of secular and religious synergy (protection and legitimization)
        • Robert II the Pious, Hugh’s son, crowned shortly after his own coronation; miraculously heals skin diseases with “the king’s touch”
the latin west23
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
    • Rulers
      • East Francia (German empire) 10th-11th c.
      • West Francia (France) 10th-11th c.
      • England 10th-11th c.
        • Extensive damage by Vikings; Alfred the Great (king of Wessex) defeats them in 879 and establishes law code
        • Alfred and successors cooperate with nobility; broad base of support in local units of government (shires)
        • Monarchy also enjoys support of the Church
        • Inspires literacy (learning Latin); A-S and Latin literature flourish under Alfred (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is an impt history)
        • Norman invasion 1066 connects England and the continent (William vs. Harold)
the latin west24
The Latin West
  • 5. Invasion and Recovery
    • Invaders
    • Rulers
    • Conversion
      • Kings and chiefs converted, and then their people
      • Monks came after, and Christian princes established new bishoprics (these become cultural centers, attracting members of the upper classes)
      • Conversion compels tribes to abandon polygamy
      • 14th c.: polytheism disappears in Scandinavia
      • New bishoprics in Slavic lands (Poland, Bohemia, Hungary) ensure Latin Christianity there (instead of Eastern)
the latin west25
The Latin West
  • 6. The Crusades
    • Origins
      • Mid-11th century Seljuk Turks converted to Islam and pressured Byzantine empire
      • Alexius Comnenus (Byzantine emperor) requested military assistance
      • Armed pilgrimage to the Holy Land begins with Pope Urban II (1088-1095) preaching the news that Muslims in the East (Palestine) were persecuting Christians and ransacking holy places (pilgrimage sites)
      • Mission: take, retake, and protect Christian Jerusalem (11th-13th centuries)
      • Instead of Western mercenaries, Alexius receives a volunteer army of 100,000 who don’t exactly want to help their Byzantine brothers
      • Peter’s People’s Crusade (poor and homeless)
      • Pope Urban’s sermon on penance: a confusion of pilgrims and Crusaders: armed pilgrims who receive special rewards from the Church
      • Some join knightly orders (quasi-monastic): e.g. Templars: end up exercising political influence and gaining wealth
      • Other reasons to go to war: promise of booty, piety, population of young men of fighting age
the latin west26
The Latin West
  • 6. The Crusades
    • Origins
    • Warfare
      • First Crusade: 1095-1099 successful due to Muslim weakness and Christian strength: Arabs were already fighting Turks; Shi’ites and Sunnis were divided
      • Christians establish “Latin Principalities” (fortresses in the East); Muslims captured Edessa leading to 2nd Crusade
      • Second Crusade: 1147-1149 failed in the East; succeeded in the West (King of Portugal retakes Lisbon from Muslims)
      • 1187 Sultan of Egypt and Syria Saladin recaptures Jerusalem; Third Crusade: 1189-1192 assembles great army, led by most powerful kings in Europe: Frederick Barbarossa (German emperor), Richard the Lion-Heart (king of England), Philip Augustus (king of France)
      • Frederick drowned on the way there; Philip went home; Richard negotiated a truce with Saladin (then got kidnapped)
the latin west27
The Latin West
  • 6. The Crusades
    • Origins
    • Warfare
    • Significance
      • Huge waste of time, money, and human life
      • Expansion of trade and economic contacts
      • Profit for Italian cities (Genoa, Pisa, Venice)
      • Continuing ideal of the Crusader (age of exploration)