India Imperialism Case Study: What does it feel like to be ruled by someone else? CHY4U Unit 3
Evolution of British Rule in India 1765 to 1858 Elisabeth Gaynor Ellis and Anthony Esler, World History: Connections to Today – Teachers Edition (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001), 632.
Historical Background on India 1526: Mughal Empire established • Muslim rulers of mostly Hindu people • Generally tolerant of non-Muslims • Especially under Babur and Akbar • Hindu temples were built • Cows, sacred to Hindus, were not allowed to be slaughtered • Intermarriage happened between Mughal rulers and Hindu princesses • Non-Muslims were not forced to follow Islamic law
1592-1666: Cultural highpoint of Mughal rule • with the building of Emperor Shah Jahan’s Taj Mahal, a tomb for his wife The beautiful Islamic influences of the Taj Mahal (1631-1648) in Agra, India UNESCO, World Heritage Centre, Taj Mahal, 2016, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/252 (May 3, 2016)
British Arrival 1700s: British interest in India began • Trade of cotton, spices, tea • British East India Company got large slices of territory British East India Co. official in India in 1760 Wikipedia, India East Company, May 3, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_India_Company (May 3, 2016)
Worksheet • At this point, fill in the India section (both right and left sides) of the Western Imperialism and Non-western Responses worksheet • You will start to see the significance of 1857/58 and the British Raj that followed in which 20 000 British officials and troops ruled over 300 million Indians
Rebellion or Mutiny? “The largest rebellion against British rule took place in 1857-58. It was known in Britain as the Indian Mutiny. This was because it began with a rebellion by Indian troops (sepoys) serving in the army of the British East India Company. British rule in India was handled by the East India Company. Indian historians dislike the term 'mutiny' because it suggests that only Indian troops were involved. In fact, once some of the Indian troops did revolt, the rebellion against British rule spread rapidly and involved many local Indian leaders who had a wide range of complaints against British rule. The British preferred to think of the rebellion as a mutiny because this word disguised the huge scale of the rebellion. The word mutiny also covered up the involvement of ordinary Indians. The British preferred to keep this quiet as it suggested that British rule was not widely accepted in India.” British National Archives, Living in the British Empire - India, N.d., http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/empire/g2/cs4/background.htm (May 3, 2016)
Success, but… “By 1910 , India had the fourth largest railway system in the world, one that unified the country geographically and economically. However, under British rule, the generally positive advances of social reforms, public works and unification of the [sic] India’s disparate regions were coupled with racism and economic exploitation. Lack of Indian representation in government and an economic system that was perceived as a drain on India’s wealth were the primary causes of agitation against British rule in India.” PBS, The Story of India, Colonization, 2008, http://www.pbs.org/thestoryofindia/gallery/photos/21.html (May 28, 2013)
The Jewel in the Crown • Why did Britain refer to India this way? • “In 1901, for example, the British viceroy (governor) of India, Lord Curzon, said 'As long as we rule India, we are the greatest power in the world. If we lose it we shall straightway drop to a third rate power'.” • India provided a lot of wealth to the British Empire British National Archives.
Tilak and INC 1885: The Indian National Congress was formed • a nationalist group that wanted to have more Indians in government and pay less to Britain to run India (included famous names like Mohandas K. Gandhi and Bal GanghadarTilak) 1905-1908: Swadeshi movement – “of our own country” • proposed an economic boycott of cheap factory-made cloth textiles produced in Britain • other targets of non-cooperation included the British court system and taxation
Tilak on Self-Rule, 1907: “One thing is granted, namely, that this government does not suit us. As has been said by an eminent statesman - the government of one country by another can never be a successful, and therefore, a permanent government. …One fact is that this alien government has ruined the country. In the beginning, all of us were taken by surprise. We were almost dazed. We thought that everything that the rulers did was for our good …We are not armed, and there is no necessity for arms either. We have a stronger weapon, a political weapon, in boycott. We have perceived one fact, that the whole of this administration, which is carried on by a handful of Englishmen, is carried on with our assistance. We are all in subordinate service. … I want to have the key of my house, and not merely one stranger turned out of it. Self-government is our goal; we want a control over our administrative machinery. We don't want to become clerks and remain [clerks]. At present, we are clerks and willing instruments of our own oppression in the hands of' an alien government, and that government is ruling over us not by its innate strength but by keeping us in ignorance and blindness to the perception of this fact.” Modern History Sourcebook, Tilak: Address to the Indian National Congress, 1907, 1998, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1907tilak.html (May 28, 2013).
Tilak’s Sedition Trial, 1897 Columbia University, Tilak, N.d., http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1800_1899/congress/tilak/tilak.html (May 3, 2916)
Which apply to Tilak? • Communal • Self-help • Indian consciousness • Nationalist • Mass participation • Non-political • Defeatist • Pessimistic • Assertive • Passive
Taking Sides • Where would Tilak stand in 1907? Where would most of the INC be? Where would the British gov’t in India be? Mod Cons Rad
Drawing Conclusions on Progress and Decline in India • This case study relates to imperialism through: • Economic motives • Nationalism (both sides) • Christianization • Social Darwinism • Resistance • Other? • It foreshadows…