Basic anatomy and biomechanics
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Basic Anatomy and Biomechanics. PE 254. Functions of the Musculoskeletal System . Gives the body shape Protects internal organs Provides for movement Consists of more than 600 muscles. Anatomy. Muscles - provide movement & generate heat. Ligaments - connect bone to bone

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Functions of the musculoskeletal system
Functions of the Musculoskeletal System

  • Gives the body shape

  • Protects internal organs

  • Provides for movement

  • Consists of more than 600 muscles


Anatomy
Anatomy

  • Muscles - provide movement &

    generate heat.

  • Ligaments - connect bone to bone

    injury = sprain

  • Tendons - connect bone to muscle

    injury = strain

  • Bones - protection & shape


The skeletal system
The Skeletal System

  • Gives form to the body

  • Protects vital organs

  • Consists of 206 bones

  • Acts as a framework for attachment of muscles

  • Designed to permit motion of the body








The lower extremity
The Lower Extremity

  • Hip

  • Thigh

  • Knee

  • Leg

  • Ankle

  • Foot


The upper extremity
The Upper Extremity

  • Shoulder girdle

  • Arm

  • Elbow

  • Forearm

  • Wrist

  • Hand


Joints
Joints

  • Degree of movement

    • Synarthrosis – immovable joint

      (ex: the skull)

    • Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable joint

      (ex: fibrocartilaginous disc between the vertebrae; ligament or membrane links the two bones such as scapula to the clavicle)

    • Diarthrosis – freely movable joint

      (ex: hip or shoulder joint)


Diarthrosis joints
Diarthrosis Joints


Examples of diarthrosis joints
Examples of Diarthrosis Joints

Ball and Socket

Hinge


Types of muscle 1 of 3
Types of Muscle (1 of 3)

  • Skeletal (voluntary) muscle

    • Attached to the bones of the body

  • Smooth (involuntary) muscle

    • Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body


Types of muscle 2 of 3
Types of Muscle (2 of 3)

  • Smooth (involuntary) muscle

    • Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body


Types of muscle 3 of 3
Types of Muscle (3 of 3)

  • Cardiac muscle

    • Involuntary muscle

    • Has own blood supply and electrical system

    • Can tolerate interruptions of blood supply for only very short periods



Muscle groups
Muscle Groups

  • Because a single muscle usually does not act alone when it exerts tension in normal body movement, it acts as one member of the team of muscles that partially or wholly can control or contribute to the joint movement occurring. Therefore, it is convenient and adequate in most cases of gross muscular analysis to refer to the action of “groups of individual muscles” rather than trying to name each one that is or might acting.


Examples of muscle groups
Examples of Muscle Groups

Elbow flexors/extensors

Knee flexors/extensors

Shoulder abductors/adductors

Shoulder flexors/extensors

Hip flexors/extensors

Hip abductors/adductors


Standard reference terminology anatomical reference position
Standard Reference TerminologyAnatomical Reference Position

  • Erect standing position with all body parts, including the palms of the hands, facing forward; considered the starting position for body segment movements


Basic joint articulations
Basic Joint Articulations

Flexion

Extension

Abduction

Adduction

Pronation (elbow and forearm)

Supination (elbow and forearm)


Standard reference terminology directional terms

Superior

Inferior

Anterior

Posterior

Medial

Lateral

Proximal

Distal

Superficial

Deep

Standard Reference TerminologyDirectional Terms


Standard reference terminology anatomical reference planes
Standard Reference TerminologyAnatomical Reference Planes

  • Cardinal planes – 3 imaginary perpendicular reference planes that divide the body in half by mass

    • Sagittal plane

    • Frontal plane

    • Transverse plane


Standard reference terminology anatomical reference axes
Standard Reference TerminologyAnatomical Reference Axes

  • An imaginary axis of rotation that passes through a joint to which it is attached

    • Mediolateralaxis

    • Anterioposterioraxis

    • Longitudinal axis










Group activity
Group Activity

  • Group 1: Lunges.

  • Group 2: Standing broad jump.

  • Group 3: Discus throw.

  • Group 4: 100-meter sprint from the starting block.

  • Group 5: Push-ups.

  • Group 6: Shoulder press with barbells.

  • Group 7: Free throws in basketball.

  • Group 8: Javelin throw.

  • Group 9: Bench press with straight bar.

  • Group 10: Field-goal kick in football.


Group activity1
Group Activity

  • Identify the following:

    1. Joint(s) involved in activity

    2. Muscle group(s) involved in activity

    3. Plane(s) of motion

    4. Axis(es) of rotation


Reminders
Reminders

No class on Monday, September 6th in observance of Labor Day

Quiz 2 on Wednesday, September 8th