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TPM. Dr. Mohamed Ben Daya Professor of Industrial Engineering & Operations Research. First Session Introduction. Introduction to TPM What is TPM? Equipment: the Focus of TPM. Second Session Components of TPM. TPM-AM: Autonomous Maintenance TPM-PM: PM & PDM TPM-EM: Equipment Management.

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Dr. Mohamed Ben Daya

Professor of Industrial Engineering & Operations Research

first session introduction
First SessionIntroduction
  • Introduction to TPM
  • What is TPM?
  • Equipment: the Focus of TPM
second session components of tpm
Second SessionComponents of TPM
  • TPM-AM: Autonomous Maintenance
  • TPM-PM: PM & PDM
  • TPM-EM: Equipment Management
third session tpm implementation
Third sessionTPM Implementation
  • Feasibility Study
  • Implementation
  • Case Studies
introduction to tpm
Introduction to TPM
  • Historical Background
  • Today’s challenges
  • The TPM Solution
what is tpm
What is TPM?
  • TPM Definition
  • TPM Goals
  • TPM Concepts
  • TPM Benefits
equipment the focus of tpm
Equipment: the focus of TPM
  • The Six big Losses
  • Equipment Effectiveness
  • Calculating Equipment Effectiveness
  • Equipment Management
introduction to tpm8
Introduction to TPM
  • Historical Background
  • Today’s challenges
  • The TPM Solution
historical background
Historical Background
  • Nakajima introduced TPM in Japan in 1971 Based on his observations of PM systems in Western countries
  • 1987 United States (Hartmann)
  • TPM Prize in Japan

1971-1982 1983-1988

51 65

cont d
  • TPM is now well accepted by the Japanese industrial sector, and is attracting the attention of Western industrial nations, China, and various southeast Asian countries.
  • Ford, Motorola, Kodak, DuPont, Proctor & Gamble, IBM, AT&T, ...
cont d11
  • TPM helped Japanese to gain a manufacturing advantage over the rest of the world.
tpm institutions
TPM Institutions
  • Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance
  • International TPM Institute, Inc., USA
growth of pm
Growth of PM
  • Stage 1: Breakdown maintenance
  • Stage 2: Preventive maintenance
  • Stage 3: Productive maintenance
  • Stage 4: TPM
today s challenges
Today’s Challenges
  • Global Competition
  • The Quality Challenge
  • Just-In-Time
  • Cycle Time Reduction
  • Set Up Reduction
  • Cost Reduction
  • …….
cont d15
  • Cost Reduction
  • Capacity Expansion
  • Other Issues


Energy Conservation

the quality challenge
The Quality Challenge
  • Motorola quality goal is six sigma. That is 99.9996% good parts delivered: You must make 300,000 good parts before you ship a bad one !
  • You must have a perfect machine to produce a perfect product
  • ISO 9000
just in time
  • Modern production technique that reduces inventory levels considerably.
  • An equipment breakdown in the middle of a JIT run, immediately wipes out all gains.
cycle time reduction
Cycle time reduction
  • Shorter runs to produce customer orders with less lead time
  • Equipment breakdowns, idling and minor stoppages will make it very difficult to reduce cycle times
set up reductions
Set-Up Reductions
  • JIT and cycle time reductions result in shorter and more frequent production runs.
  • Suddenly, set-ups become crucial
  • Past OEE studies show that set-up and adjustments can consume up to 50% of total production time
cost reduction
Cost Reduction
  • Past efforts have been on manufacturing costs
  • Maintenance costs make up 5-15% of total production costs
  • Production costs have been decreasing
  • Maintenance cost have been escalating
capacity expansion
Capacity Expansion
  • Manufacturing produces a product
  • Maintenance creates the capacity for production
  • Studies show low equipment productivity on sometimes new equipment
  • There is so much available capacity hidden in your existing equipment
other issues
Other Issues
  • Environmental issues
  • The other side of the environmental coin is energy conservation.
  • Example: electrical motors are the highest energy consumers in many industries, yet many run at low efficiency, due to partially burnt windings, bad insulation, etc.
the tpm solution
The TPM Solution
  • TPM properly installed has a positive and often dramatic effect on many of the above issues.
  • The return on investment (ROI) of your successful TPM installation is likely to be higher than any of your previous productivity improvement programs
pm alone cannot eliminate breakdowns
PM alone cannot eliminate breakdowns
  • According to the principles of reliability engineering, the causes of equipment failure change with the passage of time
  • See Figure
what is tpm25
What is TPM?
  • TPM Definition
  • TPM Goals
  • TPM Concepts
  • TPM Benefits
tpm definition
TPM Definition

Nakajima (JAPAN)

Productive maintenance involving total participation

Hartmann (U.S.A.) TPM is a philosophy that can permanently improve the over all effectiveness of equipment with active involvement of operators

total in tpm means
“Total” in TPM means ...
  • Total effectiveness
  • Total maintenance system

PM - Preventive Maintenance

MP - Maintenance Prevention

MI - Maintainability Improvement

  • Total participation of all involved employees
tpm goals
TPM Goals
  • Improve product quality
  • Reduce waste
  • Improve the state of maintenance
  • Empower employees
the three zeros
The Three Zeros
  • Zero unplanned equipment downtime
  • Zero (equipment caused ) defects
  • Zero loss of equipment speed
tpm concepts
TPM Concepts
  • Employees empowerment
  • Equipment management
interface maintenance production
Interface Maintenance-Production
  • Many industries are organized with maintenance on one side and production on the other
  • The organizational line frequently gets in the way, causing delays and production stoppages
  • In TPM, both sides work as a team
tpm task transfer
TPM Task Transfer

The organizational line that separates the maintenance and operating functions is replaced by a shared task zone in which both parties are trained and certified to safely perform tasks identified by the team

See Figure

old administrative system
Old Administrative System
  • Consumes much time
  • Promotes inefficiency
  • Causes longer downtimes
  • increases costs, and
  • decreases productivity

Team management: System that organizes people into effective teams in order to accomplish a company’s stated goals and objectives

an effective team
An Effective Team
  • Achieves business results
  • Has documented goals and supporting plans
  • Exhibits responsibility for clearly defined processes
  • is accountable to itself and higher level teams
  • Assesses its progress
cont d37
  • Has good documentation
  • Has everyone’s participation
  • Uses quality improvement tools
  • Has a skilled leader and members
equipment management

Equipment Management

the focus of TPM

factors affecting equipment effectiveness
Factors affecting equipment effectiveness
  • Equipment failure (breakdown)
  • Setup and adjustment downtime
  • Idling and minor stoppages
  • Reduced speed
  • Process defects
  • Reduced yield
six major losses
Six Major Losses
  • Down Time.
    • Breakdowns due to equipment failure.
    • Setup and adjustment (e.g. exchange of dies in injection molding machines, etc.)
  • Speed Losses.
    • Idling and minor stoppages (abnormal operation of sensor, etc.).
    • Reduced speed (discrepancies between designed and actual speed of equipment)
  • Defects.
    • Defects in process and rework (scrap and quality defects requiring repair)
    • Reduced yield between machine startup and stable production.
  • Loading time = Total available time per day (or month) – Planned downtime
  • Planned downtime: amount of downtime officially scheduled in the production plan
  • Loading time per day = 460 min.
  • Downtime: breakdowns = 20 min.
  • Setup 20 min = 20 min.
  • Adjustments = 20 min.
  • Availability = ?
  • Loading time per day = 460 min.
  • Downtime: breakdowns = 20 min.
  • Setup 20 min = 20 min.
  • Adjustments = 20 min.
  • Availability = ?
performance efficiency
Performance Efficiency
  • Performance Efficiency = (net operation rate) x (operating speed rate),
  • Operating speed rate refers to the discrepancy between the ideal speed (equipment capacity as designed) and its actual operation speed


Theoretical cycle time per item is 0.5 min

Actual cycle time is 0.8 min

OSR =0.5/ 0.8 x 100 =62.5%

  • Net operating time calculates losses resulting from minor stoppages such as small problems and adjustment losses.


Number of processed items per day is 0.5 min

Actual cycle time is 0.8 min

Operation time is = 62.5%

NOR = (400)(8)/400 x 100 = 80%

performance efficiency48
PE = Net operation rate x Operating speed rate.Performance Efficiency
  • Ex: Processed amount = 400 items.

Ideal cycle time = 0.5 min

Operation time = 400 min

  • Alternative formula in case ideal cycle time is not known or products with different cycle times are run on the same machine.
  • Lost time due to
    • Idling and minor stoppages,
    • Speed losses,
rate of quality
Rate of Quality


Processed amount = 200

Rejects = 4

overall equipment effectiveness
Overall Equipment Effectiveness


Loading time = 800 min.

Down time = 50 min.

Theoretical cycle time = 1.5 min.

Processed amount = 290 parts.

Rejects = 6 parts.


  • Availability,
  • Performance Efficiency,
  • Rate of Quality,
  • Overall Equipment Efficiency,
Based on our experience, the ideal conditions are,
    • Availability => greater then 90 %.
    • Performance Efficiency => greater then 95%.
    • Rate of quality products => greater then 99%.
  • Therefore the ideal overall equipment effectiveness should be.
          • 0.9 x 0.95 x 0.99 x 100 = 85 +%
  • This figure is not just a remote goal. All the PM prize winning companies have an equipment effectiveness greater then 85%.