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paraphrasing

PARAPHRASING

Presented by:

Bolong, Braganza, Cruel, Dones, Jao, Javier, Magno, Sy, Paraiso, Raymundo, Tiu

what is paraphrasing
WHAT IS PARAPHRASING?
  • “your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form”
  • “allows you to make sense and understand the material to be paraphrased before you write it in [your own words]”
  • Shortens a lengthy statement while retaining the main idea of the borrowed information
    • Can shed new light on subject being paraphrased
how to paraphrase

Give credit to original source and take note of such for future reference

HOW TO PARAPHRASE?

Use quotation marks for unique terms.

when to paraphrase
WHEN TO PARAPHRASE?
  • Include paraphrased information to papers to add credibility to your work
  • Paraphrase when the terms used in the material are too complex/technical for you and/or your target audience

http://www.harboarts.com/shirtdesigner/jpg_design_exports/thumbs-up-vector-graphics_1320942558079.jpg

slide5

WHEN NOT TO PARAPHRASE?

  • Do not paraphrase when doing so will alter the message that the author wants to convey
  • Do not paraphrase when the passage from the material will be better understood using Direct Quotations or Summarizing sources

http://www.harboarts.com/shirtdesigner/jpg_design_exports/thumbs-up-vector-graphics_1320942558079.jpg

what is not paraphrasing
WHAT IS NOT PARAPHRASING?
  • Paraphrase Plagiarism
    • “The simple substitution of synonyms for the original words while maintaining the same sentence pattern
    • or the mere alteration of the sentence pattern while using the same words.
    • Unless the source is acknowledged, this is still plagiarism since the ideas were still borrowed from the original, even if the wordings slightly changed." (Manlapaz and Francisco 103)
what is not paraphrasing7
WHAT IS NOT PARAPHRASING?
  • Plagiarism
    • Word-for-word plagiarism
    • Cut-and-paste plagiarism

*examples will be provided

how to avoid plagiarism
HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM?
  • Paraphrasing correctly:
    • Is not rearranging words in a sentence.
    • Is not substituting words with a thesaurus.
    • Is synthesizing a passage of text and describing it (the idea) in your own words.
    • Is restating or summarizing someone else's words or ideas and giving credit to the author (that fall outside of common knowledge).
how to avoid plagiarism9
HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM?
  • Cite sources
    • Common knowledge: no need to cite
    • (i.e birth and death date of famous person, historical events)
    • exact words of the reference source: use quotation marks and credit the source.~
    • If in doubt, cite the source.
example original
EXAMPLE (ORIGINAL)
  • “The linguistic criticism of Nineteen Eighty-Four has focused primarily on Newspeak as a language and on Orwell's ideas about the relationship between language and thought. It has largely ignored, however, the literary language Orwell used in writing Nineteen Eighty-Four. Indeed, the few critical remarks about Orwell's use of language have generally been negative — sometimes attributing the dull, monotonous, dry writing style to Orwell's career as a journalist or to the phlegmatic topic of his novel. Irving Howe, for example, writes that the style of 1984, which many readers take to be drab or uninspired or sweaty, would have been appreciated by someone like Defoe, since Defoe would have immediately understood how the pressures of Orwell's subject, like the pressures of his own, demand a gritty and hammering factuality. The style of 1984 is the style of a man whose commitment to a dreadful vision is at war with the nausea to which that vision reduces him. So acute is this conflict that delicacies of phrasing or displays of rhetoric come to seem frivolous — he has no time, he must get it all down. Those who fail to see this, I am convinced, have succumbed to the pleasant tyrannies of estheticism; they have allowed their fondness for a cultivated style to blind them to the urgencies of prophetic expression. The last thing Orwell cared about when he wrote 1984, the last thing he should have cared about, was literature. I believe those critical responses to Orwell — including Howe's defense of his style — are wrong.” (from "The Uses of Passivity, " Daniel Kies, 229)
example wrong
EXAMPLE (WRONG)
  • Word-for-word plagiarism
    • “The linguistic criticism of Nineteen Eighty-Four focuses mostly on Newspeak as a language and on Orwell's ideas about language and thought. The few critical remarks about Orwell's use of language have been bad, claiming that his poor writing style was due to Orwell's career as a journalist or the topic of his novel. Only the critic Irving Howe felt that Orwell's style appreciated by someone like Defoe. Kies believes all those critics are wrong.”
example wrong12
EXAMPLE (WRONG)
  • Cut-and-paste plagiarism
      • “Most critics who discuss the language of 1984 either focus primarily on Newspeak as a language or Orwell’s ideas about the relationship between language and thought. The few who describe the novel's writing style have a negative reaction. They argue that its dreary style is a product of Orwell’s career as a journalist or the phlegmatic topic of his novel. Even one critic’s defence of Orwell’s style seems wrong.”
example correct
EXAMPLE (CORRECT)
  • “In "The Uses of Passivity," Kies argues that the critic’s reactions to Orwell’s writing style in 1984 is wrong. Most critics charge that the novel's style is dry and lifeless, attributing this either to Orwell’s career as a journalist or to the novel’s dreary topic. Even one critic’s modest defence of Orwell’s style strikes Kies as weak (229).”
exercise 1 original
EXERCISE 1 (ORIGINAL)
  • “Despite its origin in scientific research and educational pursuits, it did not take long for marketers, advertisers, and public relations practitioners to find the Internet. What they found was an uncharted land that rivalled their wildest dreams. More than a decade later the Web remains the least regulated of all mass media. Although the dot com bust of the early 2000s slowed the commercial expansion of the Web, we are beginning to witness a strong rebound in every area, including online advertising. Today, the one feature that best defines the Web is its unrelenting commercialism.”
exercise 1 paraphrase
EXERCISE 1 (PARAPHRASE?)
  • “Although it was originally used in scientific research and education, marketers, advertisers and PR people quickly found the Internet. They were happy to discover a medium that was mostly unregulated and still is more than ten years later. Although there was a slowdown a few years ago due to the dot-com bust, commercial use of the Web is increasing again; one of the most obvious aspects of today's Web is commercialism.”
exercise 2 original
EXERCISE 2 (ORIGINAL)
  • “If we are to take Tolkien's work as he wrote [The Lord of the Rings] and as he clearly wanted his audience to read it—as a true mythology, with all the layering and multiple narrators and overlapping texts and variant versions that characterize mythologies in the real world—then we must allow that, like those real-world mythologies, all the parts, even the apparently inconsequential ones, are in the greater service of the whole. To read his work as anything less is to do a disservice, perhaps even a violence, to it.”
exercise 2 paraphrase
EXERCISE 2 (PARAPHRASE?)
  • “Tolkien wanted his many writings to be viewed like a real mythology, including different versions of the same stories written by different people. All his works, both famous and less-known, are important as part of the same overall mythology. A reader who treats Tolkien’s work otherwise is not doing it justice (Flieger 84).”
slide19
Fin

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referrences
REFERRENCES
  • www.esu.edu/~bsockman/PPT/paraphrasing.ppt
  • http://www.northwestern.edu/provost/students/integrity/plagiarism.html
  • http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_plagiarism.html
  • http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/Examples%20of%20paraphrasing.html
  • http://papyr.com/hypertextbooks/comp2/samppara.htm
  • http://eia.egreen.wednet.edu/science/plagiarism/9example1.htm