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Extra Solar Planets. The first—51 Pegasi b ( Bellerophon ). The star. The planet. 51 Pegasi B. Star 51 Pegasi Constellation Pegasus Distance 50.9 ± 0.3  ly (15.61 ± 0.09  pc ) Spectral type G2.5IVa or G4-5Va Mass ( m )1.06 x Mass of Sun Radius ( r )1.237 ± 0.047 Rsun

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51 pegasi b

The star

The planet

51 Pegasi B

Star51 Pegasi

ConstellationPegasus

Distance50.9 ± 0.3 ly(15.61 ± 0.09 pc)

Spectral typeG2.5IVa or G4-5Va

Mass(m)1.06 x Mass of Sun

Radius(r)1.237 ± 0.047 Rsun

Temperature(T)5571 ± 102 K

Metallicity[Fe/H]0.20 ± 0.0

Age6.1-8.1 Gyr


How do we know this

How do we know this

Radial velocity of Star

It move toward and away from us with period of 4.2 days.


How do we know that

How do we know that?

Doppler Effect!

Change in wavelength depends on speed!



Extra solar planets

Problem: not all systems are edge on! We don’t always know the tilt!Thus the mass measured is a minimum mass

Here mp = 0, we can can know exact mass.

Here I = 90..can’t determine mp

In General, mass listed is really: M sin i

where i is inclination of orbit



Then a bit of algebra and
Then a bit of algebra….and

Astronomers know star masses from their spectra and lots of work from predecessors over the years!

Vstar and p are obtained from the radial velocity graph!


Limits of radial velocity measurements

Limits of Radial velocity measurements

Star surfaces move up and down about 1 m/s, so this is smallest practical speed for star.

Big Planet close to small star creates the biggest wobble, so we can see these most easily.

To see a complete wobble, we need to watch for one period—hard to do for planets more distant than a few AU’s.

Earth Makes sun move about 1 cm/s, so this would be lost in the Noise of the sun if someone was trying to detect us!

So guess what we found around sun like stars ?


Hot jupiters

Hot Jupiters!

Here are the first nine planets discovered (as of 1997)





So where are we know 2010
So where are we know (2010)

Note 20 multiple planet systems!


So how are they finding smaller or more distant planets
So how are they finding smaller or more distant planets?

Use Astrometry (motion of stars in photographs)

Watch for longer time periods! (its been 12 years now!)

  • Improve precision of methods (techology continues to improve)

  • Gets lots more people doing it!

  • Search around smaller stars!

  • Use Transit Photometry for edge on systems (finds smaller planets?)

  • Lets see how these methods are working!





Not as easy as it looks
Not as easy as it looks!

Transit of Mercury in 2006

Transit of Venus in 2004


Zoom in
Zoom in…

Check out: http://www.esnips.com/doc/868644b5-3d2d-46f7-8497-90255b80e3d7