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Unit 8. Absolute Monarchs. Absolutism. Forceful single leader trying to control every aspect of society within their borders. Other monarchs started to claim authority to rule without limits. Divine Right Right to rule came from God, his representative. Only answer to God .

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Unit 8
Unit 8

Absolute Monarchs


Absolutism
Absolutism

  • Forceful single leader trying to control every aspect of society within their borders.

  • Other monarchs started to claim authority to rule without limits.

    • Divine Right

    • Right to rule came from God, his representative.

      • Only answer to God.

      • No responsibility to subjects


Growing power of monarchs
Growing Power of Monarchs

  • Decline of feudalism, growth of cities and national kingdoms

    • Need to centralize authority.

    • Supported by growing middle classes

      • Support for business and owners

    • Church lost power after the Reformation

      • Monarchs move in to fill the void.


Growing power of monarchs1
Growing Power of Monarchs

  • 17th century a time of upheaval

    • Religious and territorial conflicts

    • Govt.’s built large armies, imposed heavy taxes.

    • Monarchs take control over everything

      • Helps to keep power

      • Increase size of government

        • Bureaucracy

      • Lessened power of the nobility and parliaments.



Charles v
Charles V

  • Hapsburg Empire – German Family

    • Greatest size under Charles V (1516-1556)

    • Inherited Spain, Austria and Netherlands from Grandparents on both sides.

    • 1519 princes elected him Holy Roman Emperor.


Charles v control
Charles V - Control

  • Difficult to retain control

    • Charles, a devout Catholic tried to force respect of papal authority.

    • Defender against Muslim & other heretics

    • Spent riches fighting wars with France & Ottomans


Charles v 1556
Charles V - 1556

  • Charles V gives up the throne

    • Too big for one to rule

    • divided between brother and son

    • Ferdinand I (Brother)- Austria, Hungary & HRE

    • Philip II (son) - Spanish Empire (with American colonies) & Netherlands


Philip ii
Philip II

  • Ruled from 1556-1598

    • Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe.

    • Built new royal residence

      • Escorial Palace

  • Religious but aggressive for the nation.

    • Seized Portugal in 1580 when king dies w/o heir.

      • Empire now stretched around the world.

    • Used Inquisition to end heresy in Spain


Philip ii1
Philip II

  • Defends Catholicism

    • Religious wars all over Europe

    • Thought defending his religion part of his duty.

      • Defend against Muslims (Ottoman Empire) & Protestants (Europe)

    • 1571 - Pope calls princes to defend against Muslims

      • sends large force defeats Ottoman fleet in Mediterranean

    • 1588 - Tries to attack Protestant England

      • Come back to later.


Philip ii2
Philip II

  • Wars

    • Borrowed money from German and Italian bankers to finance

    • New shiploads of silver sent abroad to pay debts

    • Philip II declares Spain bankrupt three times during is reign


Dutch
Dutch

  • Was a major trade center since Middle Ages.

    • Spain ignored Dutch tradition of self rule.

    • Resented Philip - he wanted that wealth to finance Spain’s Wars.

      • Taxed them heavily

  • Religious differences

    • Spain – Catholic

    • Netherlands – largely Calvinists

      • Spain persecuted them

  • Culturally the Dutch had little in common with Spanish.


Dutch netherlands revolt
Dutch - Netherlands Revolt

  • Philip

    • Tries to keep them in control

      • Philip sends in 20,000 troops

      • Over 6 years, 18,000 killed

      • Seized Dutch property and imposed heavier taxes.

  • William of Orange - 1568

    • Wanted to free the Netherlands from Spain.

    • Opened the dikes (levees) to flood the ‘lowlands’

      • Forced Spanish army to retreat.


Dutch netherlands revolt 1579
Dutch - Netherlands Revolt - 1579

  • 1579 – Netherlands Split

    • Spanish Netherlands

      • 10 Southern provinces.

      • Remain Catholic

    • Dutch Netherlands

      • 7 Northern provinces.

      • Mainly Protestant.


Dutch empire
Dutch Empire

  • Complete Religious Toleration

    • Unusual for the time.

  • Not a kingdom, but a republic

    • Each province elected a governor

  • Stable govt. allowed them to focus on economy.


Dutch empire1
Dutch Empire

  • Efficient Sailors

  • Became European Financial center

  • Netherlands replaced Florence as art center.

  • Never forced Christianity on colonies


Decline of spain
Decline of Spain

  • Growing population, shortage of goods

    • Can not produce enough goods, must buy

    • Cheaper to import, hurt local business’ and economy.

    • Trying to push out heretics (Jews and others), Spain had driven out the business class.

    • Spain suffers, many people leave.