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Guest Lecture to Biomed Dept. Prathyusha Engineering College by

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY. Guest Lecture to Biomed Dept. Prathyusha Engineering College by Dr. R.V.S.N. Sarma., M.D., M.Sc., (Canada) Consultant Physician & Chest Specialist Mobile: 93805 21221 or 98940 60593 Visit our website: www.drsarma.in. Lecture map. Physiology of respiration

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Guest Lecture to Biomed Dept. Prathyusha Engineering College by

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  1. RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY Guest Lecture to Biomed Dept. Prathyusha Engineering College by Dr. R.V.S.N. Sarma., M.D., M.Sc., (Canada) Consultant Physician & Chest Specialist Mobile: 93805 21221 or 98940 60593 Visit our website: www.drsarma.in www.drsarma.in

  2. Lecture map Physiology of respiration • Definitions and structures • Mechanics of breathing • Measurements of pulmonary function • Cellular Respiration, Pulmonary disorders • Blood gases - Diffusion • Neural control of respiration • Hemoglobin (and disorders) • Transport of C02 • Acid/base balance www.drsarma.in

  3. Anatomy of Respiratory Tree www.drsarma.in

  4. Longitudinal Section www.drsarma.in

  5. The Thorax and its contents www.drsarma.in

  6. What is Respiration ? • Goals: • What is the respiratory system? • What is respiration? • What are the structural features? • What are their functions? www.drsarma.in

  7. Respiration • Ventilation: • Action of breathing with muscles and lungs • Gas exchange: • Between air and capillaries in the lungs. • Between systemic capillaries and tissues of the body • 02 utilization: • Cellular respiration in mitochondria www.drsarma.in

  8. www.drsarma.in

  9. The Vocal Chords (Voice Box) www.drsarma.in

  10. Functions of the Respiratory System • Gas Exchange • O2, CO2 • Acid-base balance • CO2 +H2O←→ H2CO3 ←→ H+ + HCO3- • Phonation • Pulmonary defense • Pulmonary metabolism and handling of bioactive materials www.drsarma.in

  11. Inspiratory Movements www.drsarma.in

  12. Thoracic Cavity • Diaphragm: • Sheets of striated muscle divides anterior body cavity into 2 parts. • Above diaphragm: thoracic cavity: • Contains heart, large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, and lungs. • Below diaphragm: abdominopelvic cavity: • Contains liver, pancreas, GI tract, spleen, and genitourinary tract. www.drsarma.in

  13. Mechanics of breathing • Gas: the more volume, the less pressure (Boyle’s) • Inspiration: • lung volume increases -> • decrease in intrapulmonary pressure, to just below atmospheric pressure -> • air goes in! • Expiration: viceversa www.drsarma.in

  14. Mechanics of breathing • Intrapleural space: • “Space” between visceral & parietal pleurae. • Visceral and parietal pleurae (membranes) are flush against each other. • Lungs normally remain in contact with the chest wall. • Lungs expand and contract along with the thoracic cavity. www.drsarma.in

  15. Pleural Layers – Cross Section www.drsarma.in

  16. Mechanics of breathing • Compliance: • This the ability of the lungs to stretch during inspiration • lungs can stretch when under tension. • Elasticity: • It is the ability of the lungs to recoil to their original collapsed shape during expiration • Elastin in the lungs helps recoil www.drsarma.in

  17. Inspiration • Inspiration – Active process • Diaphragm contracts -> increased thoracic volume vertically. • Intercostals contract, expanding rib cage -> increased thoracic volume laterally. • More volume -> lowered pressure -> air in. • Negative pressure breathing www.drsarma.in

  18. Expiration • Expiration – Passive • Due to recoil of elastic lungs. • Less volume -> pressure within alveoli is just above atmospheric pressure -> air leaves lungs. • Note: Residual volume of air is always left behind, so alveoli do not collapse. www.drsarma.in

  19. Mechanics of breathing • During Quiet breath: • +/- 3 mmHg intrapulmonary pressure. • During Forced breath: • Extra muscles, including abdominals • +/- 20-30 mm Hg intrapulmonary pressure www.drsarma.in

  20. Dynamics of Respiration www.drsarma.in

  21. The Pressures www.drsarma.in

  22. X-Ray of Chest www.drsarma.in

  23. Respiration • It is the process by which the body takes in oxygen and utilizes and removes CO2 from the tissues into the expired air • It comprises of • Ventilation by the lungs inspiration and expiration • Gas exchange across alveolar membrane Diffusion in the alveoli, Fick’s law • Transport of gases by blood (haemoglobin) • Uptake of O2 and release of CO2 by tissues Diffusion at the cellular level www.drsarma.in

  24. Conducting Zone • Conducting zone: • Includes all the structures that air passes through before reaching the respiratory zone. • Mouth, nose, pharynx, glottis, larynx, trachea, bronchi. www.drsarma.in

  25. Conducting Zone • Conducting zone • Warms and humidifies until inspired air becomes: • 37 degrees • Saturated with water vapor • Filters and cleans: • Mucus secreted to trap particles • Mucus/particles moved by cilia to be expectorated. www.drsarma.in

  26. Conducting Airways Includes: From Trachea --> Terminal bronchioles Trachea --> right and left main stem bronchi. Right main stem vulnerable to foreign particles Main stem bronchi -->lobar bronchi. Dichotomous branching: ~16 generations of airways Convection Flow www.drsarma.in

  27. Conducting Zone www.drsarma.in

  28. Respiratory Zone • Respiratory zone • Region of gas exchange between air and blood • Respiratory bronchioles • Alveolar ducts, Alveolar Sacs and • Alveoli www.drsarma.in

  29. Respiratory Zone www.drsarma.in

  30. Respiratory Zone Air duct Air Sac www.drsarma.in

  31. Respiratory Zone • Alveoli • Air sacs • Honeycomb-like clusters • ~ 300 million. • Large surface area (60–80 m2). • Each alveolus: only 1 thin cell layer. • Total air barrier is 2 cells across (2 mm) (alveolar cell and capillary endothelial cell). www.drsarma.in

  32. Respiratory Zone • Alveolar cells • Alveolar type I: structural cells. • Alveolar type II: secrete surfactant. www.drsarma.in

  33. Branching of Airways www.drsarma.in

  34. Branching of Airways www.drsarma.in

  35. Branching of Airways www.drsarma.in

  36. www.drsarma.in

  37. Branching of Airways www.drsarma.in

  38. Respiratory Zone Respiratory Zone : Respiratory bronchioles, Alveoli (300 million), Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs Gas Exchange : respiratory membrane www.drsarma.in

  39. Respiratory Zone www.drsarma.in

  40. Ventilation • Mechanical process that moves air in and out of the lungs. • Diffusion of… • O2: air to blood. • C02: blood to air. • Rapid: • large surface area • small diffusion distance. Insert 16.1 www.drsarma.in

  41. Bronchial Section - microscopic www.drsarma.in

  42. Higher magnification of Bronchus www.drsarma.in

  43. Terminal Bronchioles - bifurcation www.drsarma.in

  44. Alveoli under microscope www.drsarma.in

  45. Alveoli - higher magnification www.drsarma.in

  46. EM of the alveoli www.drsarma.in

  47. Alveoli 8 million alveolar ducts 300 million alveoli (diameter 70-300 m) Total alveolar surface area ~ 70 m2 Alveolar membrane thickness < 1 m. www.drsarma.in

  48. Cross Section of Alveolus Netter FH, CIBA Collection of Medical Illustrations 2nd ed. 1980 vol.7, p. 29. www.drsarma.in

  49. Secretion of Surfactant by Alveoli www.drsarma.in

  50. Section of Bronchus - schematic www.drsarma.in

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