Deformation of Rocks. How Rocks Deform Brittle-Ductile Behavior Faulting and Folding. Stress and Strain. The keys to understanding any deformation are stress (the cause) and strain (the effect). Compression. Rocks are squeezed or compressed by forces directed toward one another.
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How Rocks Deform
Faulting and Folding
Folding of Rocks
Faulting of Rocks
Rate of deformation (strain rate)
Low strain rates Ductile (Mantle Convection)
High strain rates Brittle (Earthquake waves)
Effects of Temperature and Strain Rate
Limits the depths of
Gradual Movement: Perspective view of the Los Angeles region with superimposed InSAR( Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements of ground motions between May and September 1999. Large regions of metropolitan Los Angeles are rising and falling by up to 11 cm annually, and a large portion of the city of Santa Ana is sinking at a rate of 12 mm per year.
Large scale and small scale folds
Large scale and small scale
Classified according to:
Dip of fault
Direction of relative movement
Death Valley, CA
> 45° dip
< 45° dip
A pair of streams that has been offset by right-lateral slip on the San Andreas fault (lineament extending from left to right edge of photograph). View northeastward across fault toward the Temblor Range. Photograph by Sandra Schultz Burford, U.S. Geological Survey.
vertical motions instead of lateral motions