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Minerals. What is a mineral?. 5 Characteristics of a mineral Naturally Occurring Inorganic (Not Living) Always a solid Has a definite chemical composition Atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern (creates crystals). Mineral Identification.

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what is a mineral
What is a mineral?

5 Characteristics of a mineral

  • Naturally Occurring
  • Inorganic (Not Living)
  • Always a solid
  • Has a definite chemical composition
  • Atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern (creates crystals)
mineral identification
Mineral Identification
  • Scientists identify mineral based on their properties.
  • Color and appearance are 2 clues that we use to identify minerals.
  • Are color and appearance enough?
  • No WAY!
hardness
Hardness
  • The measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched by other minerals.
  • To compare hardness a list of common minerals and their hardness was developed by Friedrich Mohs.
  • We call is the Mohs scale. 1 = Softest, 10 = Hardest.
luster
Luster
  • Luster describes how light is reflected from a minerals surface.
  • Luster is either metallic (shiny and metal – like) or non-metallic (not shiny)
color
Color
  • The color of a mineral can serve as a clue to it’s identity.
  • However, color is NOT enough to determine the identity of a mineral.
  • Ex: Quartz
streak
Streak
  • Streak is the color of a mineral when it is broken down into a powdered form.
  • When a mineral is rubbed across a Streak Plate, the mineral that is left behind is powdered.
  • The streak test will only work for minerals that are softer than the streak plate.
  • Why?
cleavage and fracture
Cleavage and Fracture
  • Cleavage is a property that minerals have when they break along smooth, flat surfaces.
  • Fracture is a property that minerals have when they break along rough, jagged surfaces.
other properties
Other Properties
  • Some minerals are magnetic (Ex: Magnetite)
  • Some minerals fizz when they come in contact with an acid. (Ex: Calcite)
video clip questions
Video Clip Questions
  • How many minerals found in nature?
  • About how many are important in developing rocks?
  • How many properties tests are used to identify minerals?
  • Which is more dense? Nonmetal base or metal base?