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Al-Husain: The Third Imam

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  1. Al-Husain: The Third Imam By A.S. Hashim. MD

  2. Early Childhood • Born in Medina, 3rd Yr of Hijrah • Prophet gives him and his brother their names • The Prophet loves them very much • Al-Husain was born after Ohod confrontation • Along with his brother, they fill the house with joy

  3. Early Childhood II • The Prophet loves the two boys dearly and plays with them • The Prophet calls them His own Children • Prophet Visits them almost daily • They go with him to the Masjid often

  4. Early Childhood III • At 2, a sister is born, Zainab • At 3, another sister is born, Umm Kalthoom • At 5, Ayah of Tat’heer is revealed • Al-Husain is one of Ahlul Bayt

  5. Ayah of Tat’heer and Ahlul Bayt • Al-Kisaa as narrated by Jabir Al-Ansaari • Took place in Umm Salama’s house • Ali, Fatima, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain under one cover along with the Prophet • The Prophet declares: These are my Ahlul Bayt

  6. إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا (Surah  33:  Ayah  33.  According to A'isha, Ayah of Tat'heer (Purification) was revealed on behalf of Fatima, Ali, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain, see Sahih Muslim Vol. 3, Page 130.) VERILY, ALLAH HAS DECREED TO PURIFY YOU, O' AHLUL BAYT, AND SANCTIFY YOU IN A PERFECT WAY Ayah of Tat’heer

  7. Early Childhood IV • Christians from Najran visit Muhammad • They inquire about Islam, and • The Quran challenges them (Mubaahala) • They agree to invoke Damnation of God on the liars • Next day, seeing that Muhammad brought Ahlul Bayt for Mubaahala, • The Christians retreat, asking to be excused from Mubaahala

  8. "THEN SAY: LET US CALL UPON OUR CHILDREN AND YOUR CHILDREN, OUR LADIES AND YOUR LADIES, OURSELVES AND YOURSELVES, THEN WE PRAY SO THAT ALLAH'S WRATH WILL BE UPON THOSE WHO TELL UNTRUTH" فَمَنْ حَآجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءنَا وَأَبْنَاءكُمْ وَنِسَاءنَا وَنِسَاءكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَةُ اللّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِين Ayah for Mubaahala: Surah 3:  Ayah 61.

  9. الحسـن والحسـين سـيدا شـباب اهل الجنه مََنٍ أحبَّ الحسـنَ والحسـين  فقد أحبَّنِي ومَنٍ أبغَضَـهُما  فقد أبغَضَني أنا سِلمٌ لِمَن سالمـتم،   وحربٌُ لِمَن حاربتُم AL-HASAN AND AL-HUSAIN ARE EACH A PRINCE OVER THE YOUTHFUL IN HEAVEN". THE ONE WHO LOVES HASAN AND HUSAIN WILL ALSO HAVE LOVED ME, AND HE WHO DETESTS THEM,WILL HAVE DETESTED ME. "IN PEACE I AM WITH HIM WHOM YOU ARE IN PEACE WITH AND IN BATTLE I AM WITH HIM WHOM YOU ARE IN BATTLE WITH Hadiths about Hasan and Husain

  10. Al-Husain: Age 6-7 Yrs Old • Al-Husain at age 6-7: the Prophet dies • Saqifa happenings and its aftermath of Khilaafah • Father works in Grove to support family • Father tutors Al-Hasan and Al-Husain along with Ibn Abbas • Mother is sick

  11. Lineage Grandfathers Muhammad and Abu Talib Father Ali Al-Husain Grandmothers Khadijah and Fatima Mother Fatima

  12. Tutored at Home • Ali tutors Al-Hasan and Al-Husain every night • Ali also tutors Ibn Abbas • Ibn Abbas was 13 Yrs old • Tutoring continues for many years

  13. Age 7 Yrs Old • Mother Fatima dies • Buried at night, as per her wishes • So buried to avoid connection with some people who had angered her • Al-Husain misses his mother very much • In mourning • Father continues to tutor them

  14. New Step Mother • Father marries Asmaa bint Umais • Asmaa was wife of Abu Bakr • Asmaa had Abu Bakr’s baby by name of Muhammad • Asmaa was previously wife of Ja’far, brother of Ali. Ja’far was killed in Mu’ta battle

  15. As a Child • Al-Husain at 9, Abu Bakr dies, Omar the Khalifa • Family busy with Muhammad son of Abu Bakr and other children • Full of questions in quest of knowledge • Family visitation and interaction

  16. As a Youth • Participates in religious discourses and discussions • Omar’s rule • Strict, Islamic • Sahaaba are forbidden from leaving Medina • Islamic expansion into Persia and Byzantine territories • Along with Al-Hasan, helps father in writing the Corpus of Knowledge • Tutors brothers and sisters

  17. At Age 19 • Omar dies, being stabbed by Abu Lu’lua • Omar appoint 6 to choose a Khalifa from among them • Uthman becomes Khalifa • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain continue to help father in writing the Corpus of Knowledge • Discourses at the Masjid Al-Nabawi

  18. Al-Husain in his Twenties • Gets married • Neat, dignified, and well groomed • At first Uthman’s Rule was mellow but good • Uthman starts to appoint corrupt family clan to high offices all over: Dynasty Rule • Corruption of the rulers lead to complaints • Ali marries Umm Al-Baneen

  19. Ali’s writings during: Abu Bakr, Omar, and Uthman’s Khilaafah: Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: Quran in chorological order Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) Ah’kaam Al-Jafr White Jafr: Prophets and early times Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam Corpus of Knowledge

  20. Al-Husain in his Twenties II • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain participate in North Africa Campaign • Feels the anger of the society about the rule of Uthman • The uprising against Uthman • Defends Uthman from the rebels surrounding Uthman’s house

  21. Al-Husain in his Twenties III • Has many brothers through Umm Al-Baneen • Is very close to his brother Al-Abbas • Tutors his brother Al-Abbas, and other brothers • The house is very active with the expanded family • Continues his discourses at Masjid Al-Nabawi

  22. Al-Husain in his Thirties • Ali is elected for Khilaafah • Some People agitate against Ali • A’isha, Talha, and Zubair lead a force and head toward Basrah • Ali and his family head toward Kufa

  23. Toward Kufa • Ali, family, and 500 people arrive from Medina to Kufa • Al-Husain during travel • In Kufa, they get to work immediately • They build support to fight off the insurgents in Basrah

  24. Al-Husain at Jamal Confrontation • During the battle Ali was very protective of Al-Hasan and Al-Husain • Ali urged his other son (Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiyyah) to face the rebels • When asked about Al-Hasan and Al-Husain, he replied: • I don’t want to expose the lineage of Rasool Allah to be cut off (up to Al-Mahdi)

  25. Al-Husain at Jamal Confrontation • Al-Husain did well during the battle • Al-Husain was 32 years old at the time • Feels for the many who lost their lives needlessly • Sees his father Ali giving freedom to Benu Umayya who fought him at Jamal battle

  26. Al-Husain at Age 31-35 • Helps father in administration matters in Kufa • Kufa had become the Capital of the Islamic Ummah • In Preparation for the forthcoming confrontation with Mu’awiya • Participates in the Islamic Discourses in Kufa

  27. At Age of 33 • Heads to Siffin to confront Mu’awiya • Participates in the 9 day battle • Fighting was severe sometimes • Numerous widows and orphans as a result • Disappointment about the arbitration

  28. On the way to confront Mu’awiya, they passed by a dreary place Ali asked about the name of the place The answer was Karbala Ali’s face got sad and he said: هنا محطُّ رِحالهم   ومهراق دمائهم "IT IS HERE WHERE THEY WILL BE STOPPED AND IT IS HERE WILL BE THE BLOOD-SHED." At Age of 33

  29. Al-Husain at Siffin • Is aware of the intrigues of Mu’awiya • Could see the role of Ammar who was promised by the Prophet that the Vicious and Malicious fighters would kill him • Al-Husain witnesses the debacle of Khariji and the call for arbitrations • They return to Kufa disheartened

  30. Al-Husain at Age of 34-36 • Witnesses the suffering of the widows and orphans • Aware of Nahrawan and the trouble of its aftermath • Aware of the havoc caused by Mu’awiya • In Iraq • In Yemen • In other territories

  31. Al-Husain at Age of 36 • Ibn Muljim wounds Ali, Ali gives Al-Hasan his last advice • Ali designates Al-Hasan as the 2nd Imam • Ali’s advice is for all of his children • They bury Ali in Najaf • People give Al-Hasan allegiance, he is to face Mu'awiya

  32. Al-Husain at Age of 36 • Sees the deceit of Mu’awiya about the agreement with his brother Al-Hasan • Listens to Al-Hasan giving the speech to the worshippers at the Grand Mosque of Kufa • Listens to Mu’awiya’s speech, and is flabbergasted at the rudeness and gall of this man • Al-Husain, Al-Hasan and family return to Medina

  33. In Medina, age: 36-57 Yrs • Teaches Islamic discourses in Medina along with Al-Hasan • Very popular • Helps people as well as educate them • Is pained by Mu’awiya’s deception • Is pained by hearing Ali being damned in every Jumu’ah Prayer all over the country • Cursing Ali was made the State Policy by Mu’awiya

  34. Al-Husain at Age 37 • Al-Hasan, being sick with the poison: • vomiting blood material • Jaundiced and feeling very weak • Al-Hasan designates Al-Husain as the 3rd Imam • Al-Hasan wants to be buried by the Prophet if possible • Al-Husain’s Imamah starts

  35. TO CONTINUE, Go to al-Husain to Karbala Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim