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  1. 4.0 Changes in biological diversity

  2. Reducing biodiversity Brainstorm: What are some ways that we contribute to the reduction in biodiversity of species?

  3. Status of biodiversity • Extinction – disappearance of a species from Earth • Ex. • Extirpation – disappearance from an area • Ex. • Endangered – species at risk at being extinct or extirpated • Ex.

  4. Status of biodiversity • Threatened – likely to become endangered Ex. • Special Concern – species vulnerable to natural events • Ex.

  5. Causes of Reduction in Species

  6. Selecting traits • Natural Selection – when nature chooses the species with the most suitable traits to survive • Artificial Selection – when humans select and breed organisms for certain traits What are some examples on the farm or in Viking where artificial selection is being done?

  7. Selecting traits Examples: Breeding “champion” dogs Using the seeds from the largest plant crops Corn – see pg. 66

  8. Selecting traits We use biotechnology to choose traits. Bio – living Technology – tools to make desirable outcomes Biotechnology – using living organisms to create desirable products

  9. biotechnologies 1. Creating Clones – creating identical organisms using technology • You can remove cells from a plant, grow and divide them to create seeds. • Ex. Carrot • ADV> many clones can be made quickly from 1 plant

  10. “But the first successful cloning experiment was done in 1958 by F.C Steward, who was at the time the director of the Laboratory for Cell Physiology, Growth and Development at Cornell University. He cloned a carrot, by taking the cells from the roots, and using that to clone the carrot. This may seem simple to us today, but thanks to F.C Steward now we can almost clone any plant. This discovery made him famous worldwide, and was the first start of cloning.” - The science, ethics, and benefits of human cloning 1,2 ).

  11. http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/devel/c8.20x16.carrot.jpghttp://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/devel/c8.20x16.carrot.jpg

  12. Selecting traits 2. Artificial Insemination – when sperm are inserted into a female with a needle, to encourage fertilization • Ex. Breeding cattle • ADV> many cows can quickly be inseminated from one bull with desirable traits

  13. Selecting traits 3. In vitro fertilization – uniting a sperm and egg outside of a female (fertilization) then placing the zygote inside the female for growth • Ex. Cattle – farmers can ensure all offspring are females 4. Genetic Engineering – altering the DNA of an organism; most common is inserting a gene from one species to another Ex. Insulin into bacteria Ex. Toxin genes in crops Ex. Insect resistant canola

  14. Selecting Traits • Risks • Reduction in variation of a crop or herd – more at risk to disease • Unsuccessful pregnancies, birth defects, deaths in clones • Weeds interbreeding with crop • What happens to the other embryos??

  15. Dolly the Sheep • Dolly #2: How Stuff Works

  16. 4.3: Conserving Biodiversity Conservation – the protection and management of biological diversity In order to conserve biodiversity, we must reduce negative human impacts on biodiversity

  17. Conservation of biodiversity 1. Protected Areas • When the government sets aside land for natural habitats and ecosystems • Ex. Jasper National Park • Allows in-situ conservation – the maintenance of populations in their own ecosystems

  18. Who maintains this area?

  19. Conservation of biodiversity 2. Charity Restoration Groups • These groups restore damaged ecosystems or encourage preservation or restore species Ex. Ducks Unlimited

  20. Conservation of biodiversity Ex. World Wildlife Fund -use money to help bring animals back to their natural environment

  21. Conservation of biodiversity 3. Resource Use Policies • Governments have made laws preventing the hunting or destroying of endangered or threatened species Ex. Whooping Crane, Trumpeter Swan • Accord for Protection of Species at Risk – prevents extinction of species from human activities

  22. Conservation of biodiversity 4. Controlling Exotic Species • Exotic species with no predators and that spread quickly must be managed • Ex. Purple loosestrife Each stem can produce 2.7 million seeds!!!!

  23. Conservation of biodiversity 5. Conservation of Genetic Resources • Zoos -Endangered animals are kept here to breed them and pass on their genes • Called ex-situ conservation – conservation of a species outside of its habitat • Seed banks - A program where seeds of each variety of plant are kept • Canada has the barley and oat seed bank • Forms of ex-situ (out of habitat) conservation