Pre-Reading Strategies. Devoting instructional time to reading preparation helps ensure success for students. Reflection. What is pre-reading ? & What happens before we begin reading?. Pre-Reading Research.
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Pre-Reading Strategies Devoting instructional time to reading preparation helps ensure success for students.
Reflection What is pre-reading ? & What happens before we begin reading?
Pre-Reading Research “In this stage background knowledge is provided, new knowledge is related to existing knowledge, purposes for reading are determined, and significant vocabulary terms are pre-taught.” Wood, K. & Robinson, N. (1983).
Guiding Questions • How are students prepared to read a text before they actually begin reading? • What practices are modeled for students to use to engage with text before reading?
Purpose Today we will… • identify our pre-reading truths; • review research-based, pre-reading strategies that are easy to implement; and • review vocabulary strategies used as a pre-reading tool.
Truth # 1 : Preparing students to handle text increases comprehension • Dr. Kate Kinsella, recommends allocating 65% of your instructional time to front-loading your instruction. • Front-loading instruction before, during and after reading will assist less proficient readers in tackling demanding text competently.
Truth # 2 : We must explicitly target specific skills and strategies. • Each time a student is expected to read, teachers need to target one or more skills or strategies and these needs to be communicated to the students. • Skills and strategies are modeled and opportunities for guided practices should be included. The goal is to expect the independent use of the skills and strategies.
Truth # 3 : Front-loading instruction anchors reading comprehension • To ensure success in comprehension employ the following prereading strategies: • Build background knowledge • Explicitly teach vocabulary • Identify text structures • Establish a purpose for reading
Background Knowledge Facts Background Knowledge… • greatly influences comprehension; • is organized and stored in the brain so the reader can use information as needed; • helps readers seek and select the information that is relevant to their purposes for reading ; • provides a framework for making connections, predictions, and making inferences, etc; • helps readers organize text information and thus enhancing the ability to retain and remember what is read; and • helps readers elaborate information thus modifying what is already stored in long term memory.
Building Background Knowledge • Picture Walk • Video Clips • Quickwrite • K-W-L Chart • K-W-H-L Chart • Anticipation Guide
Anticipation Guide • “An Anticipation Guide is a comprehension strategy designed to encourage interactive reading by requiring students to compare current beliefs and knowledge with text information.” Merkley, D.J. (1996)
Why an anticipation guide? “As they read, students encounter information that either: • Verifies shared beliefs • Encourages alteration of beliefs • Encourages comparison of beliefs and the new information obtained with the passage” Merkley, D.J. (1996).
Anticipation Guides • Great way to assess students’ previous knowledge. • After students have learned about the topic, they are easy to use as a formative assessment tool as well.
Identify Text Structures The way authors organize a text. Genre Specific
Establish a Purpose for Reading Before Reading Effective readers set a foundation for reading success. The three strategies that follow will help students do this important work. • Activating Prior Knowledge • Previewing Lesson Organization • Map with a Purpose http://www.civiced.org/pdfs/books/2010bkwtplitguidelvl2MR.pdf
References • Merkley, D.J. (1996). Modified anticipation guide. The Reading Teacher. 50(4), 365-368. • Wood, K. & Robinson, N. (1983). Vocabulary, language, and prediction: A prereading strategy. The Reading Teacher. 36(4) 392-395. • Person Prentice Hall: eTeachhttp://www.phschool.com/eteach/language_arts/2001_10/essay.html • Parkway School District www.pkwy.k12.mo.us/intra/professional/midsd/.../Prereading.ppt • Reading Rockets http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/anticipation_guide/ • Prereading Website http://prereading.weebly.com/ • Thinkporthttp://www.thinkport.org/career/strategies/reading/purpose.tp • PILRS http://timss.bc.edu/PDF/Chap2.pdf • Study Guides & Strategies http://www.studygs.net/preread.htm • WSU Development http://departments.weber.edu/teachall/reading/prereading.html • http://prereading.weebly.com/