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12. The Central Nervous System: Part A. Regions and Organization of the CNS. Adult brain regions Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla) Cerebellum. Cerebral hemisphere. Diencephalon. Cerebellum. Brain stem. • Midbrain. • Pons. • Medulla oblongata.

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12

The Central Nervous System: Part A


Regions and organization of the cns
Regions and Organization of the CNS

  • Adult brain regions

    • Cerebral hemispheres

    • Diencephalon

    • Brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla)

    • Cerebellum


Cerebral

hemisphere

Diencephalon

Cerebellum

Brain stem

• Midbrain

• Pons

• Medullaoblongata

(d) Birth

Figure 12.3d


Left cerebral

hemisphere

Transverse

cerebral

fissure

Brain stem

Cerebellum

(d)

Figure 12.6d


Lateral ventricle

Septum pellucidum

Anterior horn

Posterior

horn

Inferior

horn

Interventricular

foramen

Lateral

aperture

Median

aperture

Third ventricle

Inferior horn

Lateral

aperture

Cerebral aqueduct

Fourth ventricle

Central canal

(a) Anterior view

(b) Left lateral view

Figure 12.5


Precentral

gyrus

Central

sulcus

Postcentral

gyrus

Frontal

lobe

Parietal lobe

Parieto-occipital sulcus

(on medial surface

of hemisphere)

Lateral sulcus

Occipital lobe

Temporal lobe

Transverse cerebral fissure

Cerebellum

Pons

Medulla oblongata

Fissure

Spinal cord

(a deep

sulcus)

Gyrus

Cortex (gray matter)

Sulcus

White matter

(a)

Figure 12.6a


Anterior

Longitudinal

fissure

Frontal lobe

Cerebral veins

and arteries

covered by

arachnoid

mater

Parietal

lobe

Right cerebral

hemisphere

Left cerebral

hemisphere

Occipital

lobe

Posterior

(c)

Figure 12.6c


Anterior

Cerebral cortex

Cerebral white matter

Corpus callosum

Anterior horn

of lateral ventricle

Caudate nucleus

Putamen

Lentiform

nucleus

Globus

pallidus

Thalamus

Tail of caudate nucleus

Third ventricle

Inferior horn

of lateral ventricle

(b)

Posterior

Figure 12.11b (1 of 2)


Commissural

fibers (corpus

callosum)

Longitudinal fissure

Superior

Lateral

ventricle

Association

fibers

Basal nuclei

• Caudate

Corona radiata

• Putamen

• Globuspallidus

Fornix

Internal

capsule

Thalamus

Gray matter

Third

ventricle

White matter

Projection

fibers

Pons

Decussation

of pyramids

Medulla oblongata

(a)

Figure 12.10a


Frontal lobe

Olfactory bulb

(synapse point of

cranial nerve I)

Optic chiasma

Optic nerve (II)

Optic tract

Mammillary body

Midbrain

Pons

Temporal lobe

Medulla

oblongata

Cerebellum

Spinal cord

Figure 12.14


Motor areas

Sensory areas and related

association areas

Central sulcus

Primary motor cortex

Primary somatosensory

cortex

Premotor cortex

Somatic

sensation

Frontal eye field

Somatosensory

association cortex

Broca’s area

(outlined by dashes)

Gustatory cortex

(in insula)

Taste

Prefrontal cortex

Wernicke’s area

(outlined by dashes)

Working memory

for spatial tasks

Executive area for

task management

Primary visual

cortex

Working memory for

object-recall tasks

Vision

Visual

association

area

Solving complex,

multitask problems

Auditory

association area

Hearing

Primary

auditory cortex

(a) Lateral view, left cerebral hemisphere

Motor association cortex

Primary sensory cortex

Primary motor cortex

Sensory association cortex

Multimodal association cortex

Figure 12.8a


Posterior

Motor

Anterior

Motor map in

precentral gyrus

Toes

Jaw

Primary motor

cortex

(precentral gyrus)

Tongue

Swallowing

Figure 12.9


Posterior

Sensory

Anterior

Sensory map in

postcentral gyrus

Genitals

Primary somato-

sensory cortex

(postcentral gyrus)

Intra-

abdominal

Figure 12.9


Commissural

fibers (corpus

callosum)

Longitudinal fissure

Superior

Lateral

ventricle

Association

fibers

Basal nuclei

• Caudate

Corona radiata

• Putamen

• Globuspallidus

Fornix

Internal

capsule

Thalamus

Gray matter

Third

ventricle

White matter

Projection

fibers

Pons

Decussation

of pyramids

Medulla oblongata

(a)

Figure 12.10a


Basal nuclei ganglia
Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)

  • Subcortical nuclei

  • Consists of the corpus striatum

    • Caudate nucleus

    • Lentiform nucleus (putamen + globus pallidus)

  • Functionally associated with the subthalamic nuclei (diencephalon) and the substantia nigra (midbrain)


Fibers of

corona radiata

Caudate

nucleus

Thalamus

Lentiform

nucleus

• Putamen

• Globus pallidus

(deep to putamen)

Tail of

caudate

nucleus

Corpus

striatum

Projection fibers

run deep to

lentiform nucleus

(a)

Figure 12.11a


Anterior

Cerebral cortex

Cerebral white matter

Corpus callosum

Anterior horn

of lateral ventricle

Caudate nucleus

Putamen

Lentiform

nucleus

Globus

pallidus

Thalamus

Tail of caudate nucleus

Third ventricle

Inferior horn

of lateral ventricle

(b)

Posterior

Figure 12.11b (1 of 2)


Cerebral cortex

Cerebral white matter

Corpus callosum

Anterior horn

of lateral ventricle

Caudate nucleus

Lentiform nucleus

Thalamus

Third ventricle

Inferior horn

of lateral ventricle

(b)

Figure 12.11b (2 of 2)


Cerebral

hemisphere

Diencephalon

Cerebellum

Brain stem

• Midbrain

• Pons

• Medullaoblongata

(d) Birth

Figure 12.3d


Cerebral hemisphere

Septum pellucidum

Corpus callosum

Interthalamic

adhesion

(intermediate

mass of

thalamus)

Fornix

Choroid plexus

Thalamus

(encloses third

ventricle)

Interven-

tricular

foramen

Posterior commissure

Pineal gland

(part of epithalamus)

Anterior

commissure

Corpora

quadrigemina

Mid-

brain

Cerebral

aqueduct

Hypothalamus

Optic chiasma

Arbor vitae (of

cerebellum)

Pituitary gland

Fourth ventricle

Mammillary body

Choroid plexus

Pons

Cerebellum

Medulla oblongata

Spinal cord

Figure 12.12


Frontal lobe

Olfactory bulb

(synapse point of

cranial nerve I)

Optic chiasma

Optic nerve (II)

Optic tract

Mammillary body

Midbrain

Pons

Temporal lobe

Medulla

oblongata

Cerebellum

Spinal cord

Figure 12.14


Fourth ventricle

Solitary

nucleus

Choroid

plexus

Hypoglossal nucleus (XII)

Dorsal motor nucleus

of vagus (X)

Vestibular nuclear

complex (VIII)

Inferior cerebellar

peduncle

Cochlear

nuclei (VIII)

Lateral

nuclear

group

Nucleus

ambiguus

Medial

nuclear

group

Reticular formation

Inferior olivary

nucleus

Raphe

nucleus

Pyramid

Medial lemniscus

(c) Medulla oblongata

Figure 12.16c


Anterior lobe

Cerebellar cortex

Arbor

vitae

Cerebellar

peduncles

Posterior

lobe

• Superior

• Middle

Choroid

plexus of

fourth

ventricle

• Inferior

Medulla

oblongata

Flocculonodular

lobe

(b)

Figure 12.17b


Fiber tracts

connecting limbic

system structures

Septum pellucidum

Diencephalic structures

of the limbic system

Corpus callosum

•Fornix

•Anterior thalamic

nuclei (flanking

3rd ventricle)

•Anterior commissure

Cerebral struc-

tures of the

limbic system

•Hypothalamus

•Mammillary

body

•Cingulate gyrus

•Septal nuclei

•Amygdala

•Hippocampus

•Dentate gyrus

•Parahippocampal

gyrus

Olfactory bulb

Figure 12.18


Lateral ventricle

Septum pellucidum

Anterior horn

Posterior

horn

Inferior

horn

Interventricular

foramen

Lateral

aperture

Median

aperture

Third ventricle

Inferior horn

Lateral

aperture

Cerebral aqueduct

Fourth ventricle

Central canal

(a) Anterior view

(b) Left lateral view

Figure 12.5


Superior

sagittal sinus

4

Choroid

plexus

Arachnoid villus

Interventricular

foramen

Subarachnoid space

Arachnoid mater

Meningeal dura mater

Periosteal dura mater

1

Right lateral ventricle

(deep to cut)

Choroid plexus

of fourth ventricle

3

Third ventricle

1

CSF is produced by the

choroid plexus of each

ventricle.

Cerebral aqueduct

Lateral aperture

2

CSF flows through the

ventricles and into the

subarachnoid space via the

median and lateral apertures.

Some CSF flows through the

central canal of the spinal cord.

Fourth ventricle

Median aperture

2

Central canal

of spinal cord

3

CSF flows through the

subarachnoid space.

(a) CSF circulation

4

CSF is absorbed into the dural venous

sinuses via the arachnoid villi.

Figure 12.26a


Ependymal

cells

Capillary

Section

of choroid

plexus

Connective

tissue of

pia mater

Wastes and

unnecessary

solutes absorbed

CSF forms as a filtrate

containing glucose, oxygen,

vitamins, and ions

(Na+, Cl–, Mg2+, etc.)

Cavity of

ventricle

(b) CSF formation by choroid plexuses

Figure 12.26b


Skin of scalp

Periosteum

Bone of skull

Dura

mater

Periosteal

Meningeal

Superior

sagittal sinus

Arachnoid mater

Pia mater

Arachnoid villus

Subdural

space

Blood vessel

Falx cerebri

(in longitudinal

fissure only)

Subarachnoid

space

Figure 12.24


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