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Domestic front: • Moderate politicians voted napoleon as 1st consul but didn’t want him to have absolute power • Popular election by universal suffrage limited to local and national lists of “notabilities,” first consul could decide alone, other two were subordinates, consuls hold office for 10 years and re-eligible for election • Sieyes allowed to select consuls—became president of the senate, with power to co-opt his colleagues and was granted a national estate, which destroyed his popularity. He was shoved out of the way by napoleon • Constitution adopted and put into force without plebiscite • List of notabilities not ready until 1801, so all officers nominated by 1st consul and all members of tribunate and legislature by senate • Eventual plebiscite in Feb 1800—3 million voted for the new constitution • Biggest problem—finances—treasury near empty • Reforms take time to produce results, napoleon had to resort to loans to finance 1800 campaign • Oppostion appeared in tribunate, pre-tested autocratic nature of court, but mostly philosophers and intellectuals with no political support • Marengo campaign successful—treaty of luneville signed with austria, campo formio gains increased • 1800-1803 internal reorganization of France • Napoleon employed ablest men regardless of birth or past • Secretariat of state turned into ministry of state, a central registry—enabled napoleon to supervise separate ministries and departments without allowing them any collective responsibility
Creation of centralized administration for assessment and collection of taxes—reversed fatal decision of constituent assembly to put collection of taxes in hands of autonomous local authorities which had made direct taxation slow and uncertain • Tax collectors required to make deposit in advance of a proportion of estimated tax yield, end of 1800 tax returns up to date • Bank of france formed feb 1800 independent corporation, assisted government in return for handling tax-collector deposits, government pensions and interest on government loans. By 1803, monopoly on issue of bank notes • Local administration went back to old bourbon centralization—law of 1790 (division into departments) had deprived central government of any effective control over elected authorities • Law of 1800—prefects (appointed by napoleon) in sole charge of departments. Elected councils of departments, cantons and communes reduced to advisory functions and mayors nominated by central government • Prefects exercised executive authority, linked by signal telegraph with paris, directly subject to control by central government • Prefects were revival of intendants of ancienregime • Paris newspapers reduced from 73 to 9, remaining not to talk about gov, gov news: le moniteur • Civil code 1804 renamed napoleonic code 1807: realization of project conceived at outset of french revolution, to have legal unity in france—in 1789 365 local codes, divisions between north and south • Paternal authority restored, subjection of married women, grounds for divorce strictly restricted—adulterous wives could even be imprisoned • Property could be bequeathed away from family • Illegitimate children not recognized • Reaction against moral laxity of directory days
Code reflected middle class ideas, middle class benefited most from revolution • Emphasized rights of individual property • Reassured national land owners by confirming new land settlement • 1801 concordat with papacy—peasants still attached to church, religious skepticism no longer undisputed doctrine in intellectual circles—would pacify la vendee and reassure buyers of churchlands and drive wedge between royalism and catholicism, would extend french influence in catholic populations of belgiumitaly and rhine provinces • Recognized roman catholic as religion of majority and guaranteed liberty of worship, subject only to maintenance of public order • Resignation of all existing bishops—new nominated by napoleon and appointed by the pope • Government undertook to pay bishops and clergy, thus church land sales implicitly settled as irrevocable, • Schisms still remained—some bishops refused to resign, recognize concordat and pope refused to appoint some of napoleon’s nominees • Legion of honour 1802—swords of honour awarded to army members by napoleon, 16 cohorts and different ranks granted varying scales of life pension • Napoleon disliked list of notabilities idea as it would be privileged body independent of his control, so decided that grant of any privilege or distinction should be under his control • Confirmed and secured equality, legal and administrative unity of revolution but not political aims of the revolution • Each successive plot of royalists and jacobins gave napoleon an opportunity to eliminate opponents and demand extension of his powers • Negotiated amnesty with royalist leaders in vendee and large number of emigres allowed to return • Royalist plot of 1800 labeled as jacobin plot, law of proscription enforced, 130 Js deported
Political opposition of assemblies at its height in 1801 because of concordat—napoleon found a way to strike at tribunate • Under constitution, 1/5 members of tribunate to be renewed in 1802 but procedure for renewal unspecified. • Senate nominated members due for retirement, hence 20 most prominent opposition members removed • Tribunate then forced to reorganize into 3 sections—legislation, internal affairs and finance—henceforth, debates deprived of life, intellectual opposition denied means of influencing public opinion • Strict censorship of press and theater from directory tightened • 1803 moral and political science section of institute suppressed • Madame de stahl salon was center of opposition, banished from paris • Peace of amiens 1802 with britain gave opportunity for napoleon to secure consul for life by plebiscite • Senate forced to modify constitution • 1st consul could now present successor for confirmation by senate and negotiate treaties without approval of anyone • New privy council created, encroaching on rights of council of state, which was too independent for napoleon’s liking • Legal powers of senate increased, could revise constitution, dissolve legislature and tribunal and nominate consuls • 1st consul to preside over senate, which could only co-opt candidates presented by napoleon and could only act on resolutions presented to it by the government • Independence of individual senators undermined—napoleon could award national estates to up to 1/3 of senators, senators no longer barred from holding administrative posts
President and up to 20 members of department electoral colleges nominated by napoleon • Cadoudal plot and execution of ducd’enghien gave opportunity for napoleon to become emperor 1804 • Obstinately anti-clerical and republican army officers of rhine got rid of in battle for saint domingue, where many died of fever • Execution of duc stopped organized plots against his life by bourbons and foreign governments • Crowned hereditary emperor by pope • Imperial nobility created—1804 six grand imperial dignitaries created and also military grand officers, including new marshals • 1806 hereditary ducal fiefs from italian territories given to certain soldiers and civilians • 1808 regular hierarchy of hereditary titles established, intended to wipe out prestige of old nobles and promote fusion of old and new aristocracies, attach everyone of importance to his person and fortunes • 1810 married austrianarchduchessemarielouise • Skilfull in keeping followers in awe of himself, played them off against each other and maintained constant state of jealous rivalry for his favors • Started to demand absolute obedience, no more independent advisors, only followers • 1807 tribunate abolished • Legislature became more and more insignificant as napoleon legislated through senate • Committee for individual liberty, committee on liberty of press—considered cases of arbitrary arrest or suppression of freedom of speech, but handled few cases • Ministry of police—1804-1810 under fouche, then under more heavy handed Savary—1810 system of lettres de cachets revived, state prisons and detention without trial on authority of privy council
Napoleon had daily police bulletin and “black cabinet” for censorship of correspondence and his own secret agents • By 1811 only four newspapers, one for each department • Arts regimented by government favors and rewards • Still, censorship relatively mild • 1802 schools reorganized and government control exercised by ministry of interior, technical school expanded, st. cyr officer’s school founded and university (meant to control and lisence all teachers, to combat private clerical education) of france formed, primary education made little progress but by 1813, secondary education best in europe—but no education for women • Droitsreunis 1804—indirect taxes, salt tax, liquor and tobacco tax • 1811 tobacco state monopoly • War indemnities and contributions levied by napoleon on conquered vassal states paid into personal coffers of napoleon • Workers harshly regimented but elaborate measures taken to ensure food supplies of paris and to provide unemployment relief • Exorcised insurrections provoked by hunger • Fostered industrial development • Basic internal contradiction—middle class gained from revolution and empire, but would soon demand part in government—as soon as tide of victory turned, even servile legislature demanded reforms and liberties 1913
Foreign affairs • Empire consisted of: • France of natural frontiers (rhine, alps, pyrenees) • Annexed territories (pays reunis) ruled from paris: piedmont, parma, tuscany, illyrian provinces, (after 1810) netherlands • Semicircle of nominally independent satellite states (pays conquis), ruled by frenchmen—usually napoleon’s relatives—which formed buffer zone against attack, included switzerland, kingdoms of spain, naples, italy, confederation of the rhine, kingdom of westphalia, and (until 1810) netherlands and grand duchy of warsaw (polish lands, barrier against russian expansion), sweden • Napoleon’s Explanations for expansion and annexation • To protect france from great powers • Export civil code, concordat and other benefits of napoleonic rule to oppressed people of neighboring states • To provide oppressed people with liberty, equality and prosperity • To ensure end of old regimes in europe • To protect people from arbitrary rule everywhere in europe • In reality, needed to be in constant motion because he feared overthrow and protest, and placed relatives in territories to ensure complete obedience (failed) • 1796 freed lombardy from austria, established Cisalpine republic • 1797 campo formio treaty with austria—surrendered venetia to austria, secured position in adriatic, wanted istria, dalmatia, ionian islands (latter seized to get Levant and Egypt) • 1798 switzerland invaded, gave position in alps, tried to cut off british trade routes to india in egypt, but french fleet destroyed in aboukir bay • 1799 annexed piedmont and tuscany, established replublics in rome and naples, italian peninsula except venetia conquered
Coalitions against france: • First coalition 1792-1797 austria, prussia, great britain, spain, sardinia • Second 1798-1801 russia, britain, austria, ottoman empire, portugal, naples, vatican (egypt failure, battle of marengo) • Third 1805 austria, great britain, russia, sweden (austerlitz) • Fourth 1806-7 prussia, saxony, russia (conquest of prussia) • Fifth 1809 great britain and austria (peninsular war, war along danube) • Sixth 1812-1814 great britain, russia, prussia, austria, sweden, german states (invasion of russia, 1813 liberation of germany, defence of france) • Seventh 1815 GB, russia, prussia, sweden, austria, german states (100 days and waterloo) • Second coalition kicked france out of italy • 1800 army across rhine into bavaria, across alps into italy, austrians defeated at MARENGO and hohrenlinden, peace made in LUNEVILLE1801, peace made with british at AMIENS 1802 • 1805 ligurian republic (genoa), second cisalpine republic—buffer against austria, renamed kingdom of italy • 1801-1803 german princes of holy roman empire lost all sovereign rights, south german states correspondingly enlarged, counterbalance like italy against austria and prussia • 1805 french and spanish defeated at TRAFALGAR, but austrians surrendered ULM in bavaria, prussians made truce, austrians and russians defeated at AUSTERLITZ • 1805 treaty of Pressburg: venetian republic, istria and dalmatia added to italian kingdom, austria surrendered tyrol to bavaria, bavaria became monarchy, bavariabaden and wurttemberg made secret federation pact with france • 1806 territories from prussia and bavaria, formed grand duchy of berg, ruled by murat, confederation of the Rhine: bavaria, baden, wurttemburg—barrier against Prussia and austria
1805-1806 anglo-russian invasion of naples failed, kingdom under brother Joseph Bonaparte • Napoleon ruler of central europe, russia war in balkans • September 1805 British treaty with Turkey and Russia, russia reinforced in ionian islands • 1806 Prussia defeated, berlin, warsaw and hanseatic towns under french occupation • 1807 russians defeated at friedland, TREATY OF TILSIT—france, russia and prussia treaty, grand duchy of warsaw created, ruled by kings of saxony, russia ceded ionian islands; westphalia, brunswick, hesse-cassel, southern hanover—CONFEDERATION of the RHINE, ruled by brother jeromebonaparte, weakened prussia • After Franco-Russian alliance, only great Britain enemy • UK economy—exports of textiles and metal wares to europe, import of naval stores from Baltic and russia, cereals through Hamburg and danzig ports • 1806 closure of ports to british vessels—CONTINENTAL SYSTEM, gaps: • Iberian peninsula—spain forced into continental system 1807, portugal partitioned, popular revolt under ferdinand crushed in 1808 and ruled by Joseph Bonaparte 1808—triggered Spanish war of independence • Loophole in Denmark, forced into continental system out of fear of britain, allied with france • Sweden coerced by british in 1809, became pro-french • 1807 end, britain orders counter blockade, support for portugal—august 1808 tried to recapture lisbon, PENINSULAR WAR • SPANISH WAR OF INDEPENDENCE exposed vulnerability of napoleon, troops moved from northern to southern europe • 1809 Austria attacked bavaria, tyrol, venetia, adriatic—beaten at WAGRAM, napoleon consolidated defences, absorbed rest of papal states into italy, took Pope prisoner
TREATY OF SCHONBRUNN Austria-France 1809, france gained port of trieste (which was still trading with GB), slovene provinces (military border with ottoman empire) and illyrian provinces • 1810 marriage alliance with Austria (napoleon marries Marie louise) • Continental system still porous: amsterdam (even though holland satellite state under brother Louis bonaparte since 1806), hanseatic ports—1810 annexed holland, north coast of germany and Hanover • Russia—smarting from tilsit, hostile to duchy of warsaw, trade strangled—withdrew from continental system 1810 • Franco-Austrian alliance 1811, Duchy of warsaw strengthened by galicia, lithuania and white russia—buffer against russia • Prussia forced into french alliance • Russian alliance with sweden, truce with turks, retreated in the balkans • Invasion of Russia 1812—disaster for france • Prussia and Austria turned against France • Napoleon defeated, exiled, returned for 100 days campaign, defeated again, exiled again • KEY POINTS: • Revolutionary wars 1792-1802 ended with Peace of Amiens • Napoleonic war resumed 1803 • Trafalgar defeat 1805—britain seapower superior • Grand empire of 1807: domination in germany by defeating austria and abolishing Holy Roman Empire, Confederation of rhine satellite state, destruction of prussian power in poland, creation of Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Kingdom of westphalia satellite, Napoleon king of italy, added parma and tuscany to lombardy and piedmont possessions, naplesfrench satellite, Tilsit alliance with russia
Reasons for success: • Napoleon’s leadership as general, combined military and diplomatic strategies, kept coalition powers divided, extracted most advantage from victories • Through issue of daily bulletins, close ties with army—loyalty from patriotism and glory • Mass national army as handed down by the revolution • Grande Armee created 1801-1805, corps of 20-30,000 men, composed of 2-3 divisions of infantry and cavalry, some cavalry and the reserve artillery kept separate, several elite groups—imperial guard most important—napoleon commanded army directly, so unity and flexibility, each corps had its own role to play • New tactics of mobility and living off land instead of food supplies • Peace treaties financed maintenance of troops • Great powers formed coalitions that broke up due to rivalry and jealousy, napoleon used territory to tempt them to ally with france • Continental system—meant need for further annexation • Failures: • Portugal still trading with britain 1808-9 • Spanish king deposed 1808 • Spanish citizens revolted • Garrisons in spain drain on military resources • Napoleon’s inability to resolve conflict cast doubts on his military and political judgment • Britain supported spain and portugal, guerilla war ensued, expensive and demoralizing • 1812-1814 lost spanish territory because of war with russia • Russian conflict—conflicting aims in balkans, russia annexed swedishfinland, wanted istanbul, smarted over duchy of warsaw, tariff in 1810 anti-france and pro-british—withdrawal from continental system
Napoleon’s failing health, became lethargic at crucial points, commanded 600,000 men with french minority over huge expanse, couldn’t afford to be indecisive • Russian scorched earth tactic of retreat extended supply lines • Napoleon defeated moscow, but got stuck in winter—sickness, famine and exhaustion, slow retreat, only 25,000 men remained • 1812 fragility on home front—MALET AFFAIR, plot by former general almost convinced key officials napoleon dead, need for provisional government—discovered and destroyed, but showed vulnerability—no one thought of putting king of rome (napoleon’s son) on throne • Lack of knowledge of russian territory, small food supplies—expected quick victory, no clothes for winter, confusion in army command • Sixth coalition—all powers united against france—quadruple alliance • Leipzig lost, influence in german empire lost • War-weariness on home front, unwilling to respond to conscription, finances low • France invaded 1814 • 100 days culminated in battle of waterloo loss
Napoleon’s impact: • FRANCE: • Wars killed 7% of the population, large percentage of marriageable young men, led to decline in birth rate and population growth • Textile, coal and iron industries expanded, increasing trade with continental europe • Preserved taxation of nobility and clergy, end of feudalism, equality before law preserved, transfer of land • Destroyed some revolutionary gains: hereditary monarchy restored, church influence restored, censorship and repression, democracy and republicanism negated, restored honours system and nobility • Code napoleon • Le Chapelier law reaffirmed 1803—banned trade unions • Livrets introduced, threatened workers’ rights to employment • Protectionist effect of continental system strengthened cotton industry • Financial reforms survived • Administrative system survived • Lycees continued, though demilitarized • Legion of honour survived • CONTINENTAL SYSTEM: • Inner area producers and traders benefitted from protection to home industries, over land trade increased, french goods exported • Paris important trading center for luxuries and fashion, strasbourg and other eastern frontier cities prospered as entreports as rhine traffic increased with contraband and legal trade • Ports of atlantic and channel coasts suffered • Shipbuilding and associated industries declined
Industries in france, especially linen industries, suffered from loss of exports • Loss of profits from overseas trade=less capital for investment • Lack of business confidence led to collapse of several banks • Disastrous new conflicts to uphold system • On Europe as a whole: • Promotion of nationalism—needed french nationalism to support wars, but also incited nationalism in occupied/conquered territories by giving them a common enemy, grouping territories into regional ‘republics’ • Metric system • French armies spread ideas of revolution • Bourbon Restoration of balance of power in congress of vienna • Conservatism and liberalism • Egalitarianism • Talent –meritocracy • Militarism • British supremacy