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NONIONIZING RADIATION

NONIONIZING RADIATION

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NONIONIZING RADIATION

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  1. NONIONIZING RADIATION ….. a discussion of the health hazards associated with exposures to non-ionizing radiation

  2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum • A name scientists give to a number of different types of radiation when they talk about them as a group • Energy is proportional to frequency and is inversely proportional to wavelength • Inherent energy defines the transition between ionizing and non-ionizing radiations

  3. Electromagnetic Spectrum • Electromagnetic Spectrum Video Clip Source: http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l2/emspectrum.html

  4. THE NON-IONIZING RADIATIONS • RF, (RADIO FREQUENCY) • MICROWAVES • INFRARED • VISIBLE (LASER) • ULTRAVIOLET • AND BEYOND

  5. ULTRAVIOLET • Types: UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C • SOURCES: sun, mercury lamps, welding, lasers, pest control (fly lamps), fluorescent lighting • Target Organs: skin, eyes, immune system

  6. Biological Effect [UV] • Aging of the skin • Reddening of the skin (erythema) • Skin cancer upon prolonged exposures • Corneal injury • Photosensitization (with some chemicals) • Benefits – Induces production of Vitamin D in skin

  7. LASERS • Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of radiation (LASER) • COHERENT • MONOCHROMATIC • DIRECTIONAL

  8. Biological Effects [LASERS] • Primarily to the eye • retinal injury is most significant • Secondarily to the skin

  9. INFRARED • SOURCES: most are thermal sources (plasma torches, halogen lamps) • Target Organs: skin and eyes

  10. Biological Effects [Infrared] • Primarily thermal in nature • Skin: heats/burn surface of the skin and tissues immediately below • Eyes: Can damage retina and cornea, cause cataracts infrared: • Easiest to avoid: you can see it & feel it

  11. MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS • Sources: • Radar • Communications. • TV • Heating and drying • Air traffic control

  12. Biological Effects [Microwaves] • Primarily thermal effects • Capable of forming cataracts • CNS, biochemical changes? • Secondary problems (pace-makers, etc.)

  13. RADIO FREQUENCY • What we said about microwaves applies for RF waves also, only to a lesser degree. • This area, and the extra low frequency (ELF) energies are getting a lot of attention right now!