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Water and Aqueous Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chemistry Mrs. Coyle. Water and Aqueous Systems. The Water Molecule. Bent Two lone electron pairs Polar molecule. Hydrogen Bonding:.

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Chemistry mrs coyle l.jpg


Mrs. Coyle

Water and Aqueous Systems

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The Water Molecule

  • Bent

  • Two lone electron pairs

  • Polar molecule

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Hydrogen Bonding:

The intermolecular forces in which hydrogen that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another atom (N, O, F).

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Hydrogen bonding is responsible for many of the unique properties of water such as:

  • high surface tension

  • having a low vapor pressure

  • having a lower density in the solid form than in the liquid form.

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Surface Tension

  • Surface tension is an inward force that causes the surface to behave as a skin.

  • The higher the intermolecular forces the greater the surface tension.

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Surface Tension of Water

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Water – Mercury

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  • Substances that interfere with the hydrogen bonding between molecules and reduce the surface tension.

  • Cause spreading or wetting.

  • Examples of surfactants are soaps.

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Water’s Low Vapor Pressure

  • Because of the hydrogen bonds holding the water molecules together, the molecules have a low tendency to break free from the surface into the vapor phase.

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Water has a relatively high boiling point.

  • Why?

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Density of Water

  • Ice has a lower density than liquid water.

  • Maximum density of water happens at 4OC.

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Density of Water

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Ice- (Honeycomb Shape)