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Chemistry Mrs. Coyle. Water and Aqueous Systems. The Water Molecule. Bent Two lone electron pairs Polar molecule. Hydrogen Bonding:.

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Chemistry mrs coyle l.jpg

Chemistry

Mrs. Coyle

Water and Aqueous Systems


The water molecule l.jpg
The Water Molecule

  • Bent

  • Two lone electron pairs

  • Polar molecule


Hydrogen bonding l.jpg
Hydrogen Bonding:

The intermolecular forces in which hydrogen that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another atom (N, O, F).


Slide5 l.jpg

Hydrogen bonding is responsible for many of the unique properties of water such as:

  • high surface tension

  • having a low vapor pressure

  • having a lower density in the solid form than in the liquid form.



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http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpghttp://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg


Surface tension l.jpg
Surface Tension http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg

  • Surface tension is an inward force that causes the surface to behave as a skin.

  • The higher the intermolecular forces the greater the surface tension.


Surface tension of water l.jpg
Surface Tension of Waterhttp://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg

http://quest.nasa.gov/space/teachers/microgravity/image/66.gif


Water mercury l.jpg
Water – Mercuryhttp://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg


Surfactants l.jpg
Surfactants:http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg

  • Substances that interfere with the hydrogen bonding between molecules and reduce the surface tension.

  • Cause spreading or wetting.

  • Examples of surfactants are soaps.


Water s low vapor pressure l.jpg
Water’s Low Vapor Pressurehttp://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg

  • Because of the hydrogen bonds holding the water molecules together, the molecules have a low tendency to break free from the surface into the vapor phase.


Water has a relatively high boiling point l.jpg
Water has a relatively high boiling point.http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg

  • Why?


Density of water l.jpg
Density of Waterhttp://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg

  • Ice has a lower density than liquid water.

  • Maximum density of water happens at 4OC.


Density of water16 l.jpg
Density of Waterhttp://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg


Ice honeycomb shape l.jpg
Ice- (Honeycomb Shape)http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM107/Water/WaterBeadsOnPlantPlusWaterCharge.jpg