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ENV 510 Air Pollution and Risk Assessment. By K.Subramaniam , PJK MSc(Envt); BSc(Hons)(Envt&Occ.Health); Dip.RSH(London). ELEMENTS OF AIR POLLUTION. Composition of the atmosphere Sources of air pollution Scales of air pollution Effects of air pollution. COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

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env 510 air pollution and risk assessment

ENV 510Air Pollution and Risk Assessment

By

K.Subramaniam, PJK

MSc(Envt); BSc(Hons)(Envt&Occ.Health); Dip.RSH(London).

elements of air pollution
ELEMENTS OF AIR POLLUTION
  • Composition of the atmosphere
  • Sources of air pollution
  • Scales of air pollution
  • Effects of air pollution
residence time of gases in the atmosphere
RESIDENCE TIME OF GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE
  • Group 1: Quasi permanent
  • Group 2: Variable
  • Group 3: Very variable
group 1 quasi permanent
GROUP 1: QUASI PERMANENT
  • > 10,000 – 10 million years
  • N2, O2, Ar, Ne, He, Kr, Xe
group 2 variable
GROUP 2: VARIABLE
  • Few years
  • CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
group 3 very variable
GROUP 3: VERY VARIABLE
  • Few days to month
  • O3, NO3, NO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, H2S
air pollution
AIR POLLUTION
  • Defined as the presence of undesirable materials in air, in quantities large enough to produce effects (harmful or otherwise).
sources of air pollution
SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION
  • Natural
  • Anthropogenic
natural sources
Natural Sources
  • Volcanoes
  • Forest fires
  • Dust storms
  • Sea surface
pollutants natural
Pollutants (Natural)
  • Particulate matter
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Nitrogen oxides
  • Methane
  • Hydrogen sulphide
anthropogenic sources
Anthropogenic Sources
  • Stationary
  • Mobile
anthropogenic sources1
Anthropogenic Sources
  • Industrial sources
  • Utilities
  • Individuals
  • Agriculture
pollutants anthropogenic
Pollutants (Anthropogenic)
  • Particulate matter
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Nitrogen oxides
  • Methane
  • Hydrogen sulphide
  • Heavy metals
  • CFC, Halons, etc.
slide15
Sources of airborne pollution are many: home cooking, power generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning …
slide16
Each year we add more than 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the air mainly by:a). Burning fossil fuels b). Cutting down and burning trees Each year we add 350 to 500 million tons of methane to the air mainly by:i. Raising livestock ii. Coal mining and drilling for oil and natural gas iii. Rice cultivation iv. Disposing of garbage in landfills v. Burning forests and fields
slide17
Size &Sources of Particles (PM)

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

„Nanoparticles“

Ultrafine

Fine, PM 2.5

Natural Processes

Combustion

Particles

Gas-Particle

Conversion

Sea salt, Mineral dust

0.1 nm 1 nm 10 nm 100 nm 1 mm 10 mm 100 mm

.

.

.

Atoms

Molecules

Coarse, PM 10

Clouds

scales of air pollution
SCALES OF AIR POLLUTION
  • Defined by these four parameters
    • Horizon
    • Vertical Height
    • Time
    • Organization
scales five
Scales (five)
  • Local
  • Urban
  • Regional
  • Continental
  • Global
i local
i. Local
  • Streets
  • Height of buildings
  • Hours
  • Local council
ii urban
ii. Urban
  • < 100 km
  • Boundary layer
  • Days
  • State level
iii regional
iii. Regional
  • > 100 km, 1000km
  • Troposphere
  • Weeks to month
  • National / Regional
iv continental
iv. Continental
  • Continents
  • Stratosphere
  • Months to year
  • Regional / International
v global
v. Global
  • Whole globe
  • Whole atmosphere
  • Years / decades
  • International (UN, WMO, WHO)
a variety of scales need to be considered
Air Quality Analysis

Public

Impact

Regional

Prediction

Global

Assimilation

Satellite

Products

A Variety of Scales Need to Be Considered

Requires Close Integration of Observations and Models

effects of air pollution
Effects of Air Pollution
  • Human health and welfare
  • Biosphere (fauna & flora)
  • Material & Structures
  • Atmosphere
  • Soil
  • Water bodies
human health and welfare
Human health and welfare
  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • Respiratory
  • Ingestion
  • Surface
slide29
EFFECTS OF AEROSOL ON HEALTH

ULTRAFINE PARTICLES SMALLER THAN LUMIN DIAMETER HAVE HIGHER POTENTIAL TO PENETRATE INTO THE LUNG AND CAUSE INFLAMATION.

SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN THE SIZE RANGE BELOW 10µM CAN INCREASE THE NUMBER OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES.

HEALTH IMPACTS OF AEROSOL CONSIST OF BOTH SHORT TERM ACUTE SYMPTOMS LIKE ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS etc.

LONG TERM CHRONIC IRRITATION AND INFLAMATION OF RESPIRATORY TRACK, DEVELOPMENT OF LUNG CANCER.

fauna flora
Fauna & Flora
  • Fauna – commercial animals
  • Yield
  • Growth
  • Forest
  • Cash crop
material structures
Material & Structures
  • Metal corrosion
  • Stone decay
  • Fabric and dyes
  • Rubber / plastics
  • Paint / paper / leather
soil and water bodies
Soil and Water Bodies
  • Leaching
  • Contamination
atmosphere
Atmosphere
  • Visibility
  • Stability
  • Composition
  • Weather
  • Climate
impact of pm 2 5 on visibility
Impact of PM2.5 on Visibility

PM2.5< 10 ug/m3 (8/16/00)

PM2.5 = 15 ug/m3 (8/7/00)

PM2.5 = 20 ug/m3 (8/24/00)

PM2.5 = 25 ug/m3 (8/25/00)

PM2.5 = 30 ug/m3 (8/15/00)

PM2.5 = 35 ug/m3 (8/26/00)

slide37
EFFECT OF AEROSOL ON CLIMATE

CHANGING OF AEROSOLS IN THE ATMOSPHERE CAN CHANGE THE FREQUENCY OF CLOUD OCCURRENCE, AND RAINFALL AMOUNTS.

WITHOUT AEROSOLS IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO START THE FORMATION OF CLOUD DROPLETS.

slide38
IMPACTS OF AEROSOLS ON CLIMATE

AEROSOLS TEND TO CAUSE COOLING OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE IMMEDIATELY BELOW THEM.

MOST AEROSOLS REFLECT SUNLIGHT BACK INTO SPACE, REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF SOLAR RADIATION THAT REACHES THE SURFACE.

THE AEROSOL COOLING MAY PARTIALLY OFFSET EXPECTED GLOBAL WARMING THAT IS ATTRIBUTED TO INCREASES IN THE AMOUNT OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM HUMAN ACTIVITY.

pollutants that cause global warming
Pollutants that cause Global Warming

CO2

BC

CH4

N2O

dust

OC

O3

SO4

NOx

SO2

NMVOC

elements of air pollution1
Elements of Air Pollution
  • Definition
  • Source
  • Scales
  • Effects
  • General knowledge
slide41
API Status Indicator

http://www.doe.gov.my/

slide44
In 1989, the Department of Environment (DOE) formulated Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMG) for air pollutants, defining the concentration limits of selected air pollutants which might adversely affect the health and welfare of the general public.
  • Based on the MG, DOE later developed its first air quality index system, known as the Malaysian Air Quality Index (MAQI) in 1993.
slide45
An index system has an important role in conveying to both decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.
  • Application of the index system, particularly in industrialised countries, has demonstrated its useful role in providing a sound basis for both the effective management of air quality, as well as the effective protection of public health.
  • In line with the need for regional harmonisation and for easy comparison with countries in the region, the Department revised its index system in 1996, and the Pollutant Index (API) was adopted.
  • The API system of Malaysia closely follows the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) system of the United States.
industrial emission and open burning
Industrial Emission and Open Burning

How does air pollution occur?

  • Air pollution occurs when air impurities in the form of gaseous or particles are emitted into the atmosphere.
  • It is important to recognize that air pollution is not a single entity but an alphabet soup of foregoing materials mixed with the normal constituents of air.
  • Air pollutant comes from a variety of natural and man-made sources.
industrial emission and open burning1
Industrial Emission and Open Burning
  • Man made sources include emission from industrial activities, emissions from motor vehicles and burning of fossil fuels and biomass.
  • Environmental issues relating to industrial emissions and open burning activities will be discussed in detail.
slide48
Impacts of

Air Pollution

Climate Change

Acid Rain

Visibility and

Ecosystem

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

Human Health

(Risk)

Water Quality

Eutrophication

Air Toxics

integrated l i f t approach
INTEGRATED L.I.F.T APPROACH
  • LEGISLATION
  • INSTITUTIONAL
  • FINANCIAL
  • TECHNOLOGY
plan of action
PLAN OF ACTION
  • SHORT TERM PLANNING
  • LONG TERM PLANNING
conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, FINANCIAL

AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES ARE

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS THAT NEED TO BE

ADDRESSED SERIOUSLY IN ORDER TO

TACKLE THE PROBLEM OF AIR POLLUTION

IN THE LONG RUN.

  • HOWEVER, THIS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED

THROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE AND

EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION

PLAN.

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