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Automotive Ignition Systems

Automotive Ignition Systems

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Automotive Ignition Systems

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  1. Automotive Ignition Systems

  2. Ignition System Purpose • Create a high voltage spark • Deliver the spark at correct time

  3. How Stuff Works .com

  4. Ignition Timing • BTDC • ATDC • Engine RPM • Engine Load • Firing Order • Retard • Advance

  5. Firing Order

  6. Firing Order • 1,3,4,2 • 1,2,5,4,3,2 • 1,5,6,3,4,2,7,8

  7. Firing Order

  8. Primary Circuit (Low Voltage) Ignition Switch Resistor Coil Primary Winding Ignition Module Pick-up Assembly Secondary Circuit (High Voltage) Coil Secondary Winding Coil Wire Distributor Cap & Rotor Plug Wires Spark Plugs Ignition System Circuits

  9. Ignition Primary Circuit • Battery • Ignition Switch • Resistor • Coil Winding • Ignition Module • Pick-up Assembly • Low voltage side

  10. Ignition Coils • Step-up transformer • Primary winding • Secondary winding • Uses electro-magnetic induction to operate • Magnetic field must be built up and then collapsed

  11. Ignition Coil • High Voltage wire • + Battery • - ign module • Primary Windings • Secondary Windings

  12. Making & Breaking Fields

  13. Ignition Modules • Old Systems Used Breaker Points • Modules Contain a Switching Transistor • Externally Mounted • Distributor Mounted

  14. Ignition Pick-up Assemblies Can be mounted in one of five different locations: #1 Distributor #2 Vibration Damper #3 Flywheel #4 Crankshaft #5 Camshaft

  15. Distributor • A mechanical timing device • Drives off engine camshaft • Can controls both primary and secondary circuits • May contain advance units

  16. The Rotor at Work • Rotates around to DISTRIBUTE voltage to each spark plug • http://www.howstuffworks.com/ignition-system4.htm

  17. Ignition Secondary Circuit • Coil Winding • Coil Wire • Distributor Cap & Rotor • Spark Plug Wire • Spark Plug

  18. Distributor Cap & Rotor • Cap fits on top of the distributor housing • Made of lexon plastic • Has an index mark for proper installation • Rotor fits on top of distributor shaft • Also is indexed

  19. Spark Plug Wires • Very high resistance wire 1000 ohms per inch • Mostly insulation material • Small conductor material • Must follow firing order

  20. Spark Plug Placement

  21. Spark Plugs • Shell w/threads • Ceramic insulator • Center electrode • Side electrode • Plug gap • Heat range • Plug designation

  22. Resistor Plugs

  23. The difference between a "hot" and a "cold" spark plug is in the shape of the ceramic tip. The difference between a "hot" and a "cold" spark plug is in the shape of the ceramtip. The carmaker will select the right-temperature plug for each car. Some cars with high-performance engines naturally generate more heat, so they need colder plugs. If the spark plug gets too hot, it could ignite the fuel before the spark fires; so it is important to stick with the right type of plug for your car. Heat Rages of Plugs

  24. Spark Plugs tell a story Normal Lead Erossion Insulator Breakage Worn Minor Melting Carbon Fuel/Additive Deposits Over Heating Lead Fouled Lead Fouled Oil

  25. Old Breaker Point Ignition • Used 1920’s - 1974 • mechanical switch in distributor • build-up - collapse coil magnetic field • Points wear out • Must be replaced each year

  26. Breaker Point (dwell angle)

  27. Breaker Point Parts

  28. Making & Collapsing field

  29. Electronic Ignition with Distributor (HEI) • 1970’s • Transistor in ignition module turns coil on/ off • Module mounted externally or in distributor • Pick-up in distributor

  30. High Energy Ignition (HEI)

  31. Trigger Wheel • No Points • Rotating Reluctor Wheel • Fewer Tune-Ups • More Efficient

  32. Optical Trigger (Chrysler) • Photo Electric Sensor • (Photo = Light)

  33. CKPS(crankshaft position sensor) • Fewer Parts • No Points • No Distributor • No Rotor • Computer Controlled • More Efficient

  34. Crank Trigger Wheel

  35. Direct Ignition • No Distributor • One Coil for Two Cylinders • Waste Spark System • One Plug Fires Backwards

  36. Wasted Spark • 1st plug fires forward • 2nd fires backwards • Sister cylinders

  37. Direct Ignition

  38. Coil Over

  39. Business End of the Ignition System • Size • Reach • Heat Range • Spark.Air Gap

  40. Ignition System Maintenance • Replace Spark Plugs every 30,000mi/36mo • Inspect Cap and Rotor (replace if necessary) • Inspect Spark Plug wires (replace if necessary) • Check Firing Order • Check Ignition Timing (if necessary)

  41. Timing • Engine Warm • At Idle • Defeat Advance • #1 Plug wire