Sensation and Perception. Sensation. The process by which our sensory and nervous systems receive stimuli/info from the environment A person’s awareness of the world through their senses. Perception. The process of selecting, organizing and interpreting sensory information
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Coctail-Party Effect (phenomenon)
Decreased responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation.
light is reflected off of objects and gathered by the eye
Three types of cones:
Sub Threshold = BELOW the minimal stimulus needed… AKA Subliminal messages
Absolute Threshold vs. Difference Threshold
*** THE COCTAIL PARTY EFFECT
Perceptions about objects change from moment to moment. We can perceive different forms of the Necker cube; however, we can only pay attention to one aspect of the object at a time.
Depth perception enables us to judge distances. Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception. Even newborn animals show depth perception.
Visual ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual field, e.g., prism glasses.
Courtesy of Hubert Dolezal
Convergence: Neuromuscular cues. When two eyes move inward (towards the nose) to see near objects and outward (away from the nose) to see faraway objects.
Texture Gradient: Indistinct (fine) texture signals an increasing distance- Course objects appear to be closer.
Shadowing- areas in shadows appear farther away
Relative Clarity (Ariel Perspective) the further away the less clear object appear to be
Motion Perception: Objects traveling towards us grow in size and those moving away shrink in size. The same is true when the observer moves to or from an object.
In this example, the passenger is moving past a stable world. If she fixes her gaze on the bridge, objects behind it will appear to move forward. The farther away the object is, the more slowly it will appear to move. Objects in front of the fixation point appear to move backward.
Phi Phenomenon: When lights flash at a certain speed they tend to present illusions of motion. Neon signs use this principle to create motion perception.
Two lights flashing one after the other.
One light jumping from one point to another: Illusion of motion.
Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change. Perceptual constancies include constancies of shape and size.
Don’t forget :
The distant monster (below, left) and the top red bar (below, right) appear bigger because of distance cues.
Alan Choisnet/ The Image Bank
From Shepard, 1990
Both girls in the room are of similar height. However, we perceive them to be of different heights as they stand in the two corners of the room.
Both photos from S. Schwartzenberg/ The Exploratorium
The Ames room is designed to demonstrate the size-distance illusion.
How important is experience in shaping our
Kittens raised without exposure to horizontal lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal bars.
Blakemore & Cooper (1970)
Assimilation vs Accommodation
Human Factor Psychologists design machines that assist our natural perceptions.
Courtesy of General Electric
The knobs for the stove burners on the right are easier to understand than those on the left.