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Private Water Supplies

Private Water Supplies

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Private Water Supplies

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  1. Private Water Supplies everything is voluntary!

  2. Sanitary well cap Good casing Sloping Ground Soil Grout seal Bedrock Water Table Groundwater “aquifer”

  3. Protect the Wellhead Area! X

  4. Some Problems Occur Naturally Iron Hydrogen Sulfide Hardness Manganese Corrosive

  5. We Cause Many Problems

  6. How do I know what to test my water for? • Symptoms – tastes, odors, stains • Local land use and activities • Local water testing results

  7. Symptoms • White residue, dull laundry - hardness • Reddish stains, metallic taste – iron • Black stains, metallic taste - manganese • Rotten egg odor - hydrogen sulfide gas • Blue stains, metallic taste - corrosive water

  8. Be Aware of Local Activities

  9. How close must activities beto my well to cause a problem?

  10. Coliform Bacteria • A large group of common surface bacteria • Indicate the “potential” for harmful bacteria • Possible sources • Surface water • Animal waste • Septic system • Occur frequently especially in springs and shallow wells

  11. The Most Common Problems % of water supplies with problem

  12. Common Aesthetic Problems % of water supplies with problem

  13. Water Testing • Routine tests give you protection • Use certified labs! • Annual bacteria test • Every 3 years – pH, TDS, local pollutant

  14. Interpreting a Water Test • Compare your result with the Drinking Water Standard which gives the “acceptable” level • Primary Standard (MCL) • health risk • Secondary Standard (RMCL) • taste, stain, odor

  15. Drought Stages • Drought Watch • 5% voluntary water use reduction • Drought Warning • 10-15% voluntary water use reduction • Drought Emergency • Mandatory water restrictions • Ban on non-essential water use • These DO apply to private wells & springs

  16. How is the Drought Stage Determined? • Precipitation • Stream flow • Groundwater levels • Palmer Drought Index • Reservoir storage

  17. Historical Droughts in Pennsylvania Palmer Drought Index

  18. Drought Outlook • Short-term relief likely • Ground water and surface water drought will continue • 12 to 20 inches of precipitation needed over next three months

  19. Natural Groundwater Fluctuations Ground Surface Deeper Underground

  20. No pumping “static water level” Submersible pump

  21. Normal “drawdown”

  22. Sporadic Water Loss

  23. Permanent Water Loss

  24. More and More Users! 1 million wells and counting Wells drilled 1966-1994

  25. Pennsylvania Water Law • You do NOT own the water under your property • You are entitled to “reasonable use” • Little protection of existing sources • Permitting of large users in Delaware and Susquehanna Basins • Several pending bills on water use

  26. Preventing a Dry Well • Obtain your well log • Your well driller • Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey • 717-702-2074 • Identify alternate sources • Always conserve water! • Talk to neighbors, local well drillers • Monitor your water supply if possible • Monitor nearby wells on the web

  27. http://wwwpah2o.er.usgs.gov/ observed average record low

  28. If You Lose Your Water . . . • Water may return in time • Emergency water conservation • Reduce peak demands • Have well driller determine the cause • Faulty or worn-out pump • Electrical problem • Low water level • Lower the pump in the existing well • Deepen existing well • Drill new well • Beware of unlicensed drillers

  29. Always Conserve Water!

  30. Achieving Water Conservation • Change in water use habits • Install water saving devices

  31. Water UseStudy of Eight Families in Central PA • Average use • 100 to 322 gallons per day • Peak use • 240 to 880 gallons per day

  32. Consumptive Water Use Septic System Non-Consumptive Water Use

  33. Average Water Use Gallons per person per day Toilet Shower Clothes Outside Other Bath Washer

  34. Toilet Water Use

  35. Clothes Washer • Standard • 40 to 55 gallons per load • Front-loading • 22 to 33 gallons per load

  36. Showers • Standard • 4 to 6 gallons per minute • Low flow • 2 gallons per minute

  37. Faucets • Standard • 4 to 6 gallons per minute • Flow control aerators • Kitchen – 1.5 gallons per minute • Bathroom – 0.5 gallons per minute

  38. Effect of Water Conservation Total savings = 32%

  39. Water Harvesting

  40. Types of Water Treatment • Point of entry • Point of use

  41. Examples of Point of Entry • Water softener • Ultraviolet light (disinfection) • Carbon filter (volatiles)

  42. Examples of Point of Use • Reverse osmosis • Distiller • Carbon filter • faucet or counter-top

  43. Water Treatment • Disinfection • Ion exchange • Oxidation-reduction • Filtration

  44. Disinfection

  45. continuous chlorination

  46. Ultraviolet Light Sterilizer U-V Tube