logical fallacies n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Logical Fallacies PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Logical Fallacies

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 9

Logical Fallacies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 117 Views
  • Uploaded on

Logical Fallacies. Arguments. Claim: The position being argued Reasons: Support for the claim Warrants: The principle or chain of reasoning that connects the reason to the claim We need to connect claims to reasons with logical warrants for arguments to be sound. .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Logical Fallacies' - arnie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
arguments
Arguments
  • Claim: The position being argued
  • Reasons: Support for the claim
  • Warrants: The principle or chain of reasoning that connects the reason to the claim
  • We need to connect claims to reasons with logical warrants for arguments to be sound.
what are logical fallacies
What are logical fallacies?
  • Mistakes in our reasoning
    • Claims, warrants, or pieces of evidence are invalid, insufficient, or disconnected
  • Seriously affect our ability to argue effectively
    • Sometimes we think that our faulty argument is sound
    • Sometimes we think a flawed argument will win us the battle
  • Sometimes these are difficult to spot because they are disguised by the skillful use of words or images.
fallacies
Fallacies
  • Ad Hominem—Against the Man
    • Avoiding the issue by attacking a person’s character
    • Used to divert an audience’s attention from the issue at hand
      • A prosecutor asks the judge to not admit the testimony of a burglar because burglars are not trustworthy.
  • Begging the Question
    • Circular Reasoning
      • Drawing conclusions from assumptions that have not been proven
      • CLAIM: You can’t give me a C in this course…
      • REASON: …because I am an A student.
      • WARRANT: An A student is someone who can’t receive Cs.
fallacies1
Fallacies
  • Either/Or Fallacy
    • Contrasting your own choice only with one that is completely undesirable; Overlooking other options
      • All drugs should be either legalized or banned completely. (Ignores other positions like legalizing marijuana for cancer treatments but not for general use)
  • Equivocation
    • Using a word with two or more definitions, usually in order to confuse or deceive
      • Macbeth has nothing to worry about “till Birnamwood / Do come to Dunsinane” –how can a forest move?
    • Argument gives an honest appearance
fallacies2
Fallacies
  • Hasty/Faulty Generalization
    • Inference drawn from insufficient evidence
      • Because my Honda broke down, then all Hondas must be junk.
  • Sweeping Generalization
    • Claim that something applies to all situations without exceptions.
      • All cameras are easy to use.
      • All women are bad drivers.
      • All English teachers are nitpicky.
fallacies3
Fallacies
  • Post Hoc: Faulty Causality
    • Assumes that because one action follows another, the first causes the second
      • The abnormally warm weather led to the increased number in summer casualties
  • Faulty Analogy
    • Assuming that since two things are alike in one aspect, they must be alike in others
      • Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so must employees.
fallacies4
Fallacies
  • Non-Sequitur
    • Literally means “it does not follow.”
    • A conclusion or statement that does not arise logically from the premises of a given argument
      • Because my sister is rich, she will make a good parent.
  • Red Herring
    • Introducing something irrelevant/tangential to change or shift the topic
      • Why should we worry about the amount of violence on television when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents every year?
fallacies5
Fallacies
  • Straw Man
    • Strengthening your own view by distorting/oversimplifying the opposing view
    • Attacking an argument that isn’t really there.
      • "Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that.“
  • Bandwagon
    • Assumes that because something is popular, it is desirable, good, or correct
      • The President must be correct in his approach to foreign policy; after all, the polls show that 60 percent of the people support him.