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Design of UAV Systems. UAV. UAV. No =. Yes =. c 2002 LM Corporation . Introduction to UAVs. Objectives. Lesson objective - Short UAV History (with admitted US Focus) Where are they headed? What are the challenges? Design Technology Lesson expectations - Gain Familiarity

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slide1

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

UAV

No =

Yes =

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Objectives

  • Lesson objective -
      • Short UAV History (with admitted US Focus)
      • Where are they headed?
      • What are the challenges?
        • Design
        • Technology
  • Lesson expectations -
      • Gain Familiarity
      • Appreciate breadth of UAV design options

Notation - by our definition of UAVs as reusable

2-1

slide2

Design of UAV Systems

  • The first reported heavier-than-air, powered flight was of a UAV, over the Potomac River, by Dr. Sam Langley (1896)
  • The first radio-controlled UAV flights were converted Navy trainers, flown over Long Island (1917)
  • The first mass production of UAVs was the Kettering Bug, costing $400 and capable of carrying a 300 lb bomb (1918)
  • The British Queen Bee UAV was landed by dragging a weighted antenna line on the ground, which then pulled back the stick and the throttle (1935)
  • 4 UAVs with 2000 lb bombs attacked the Japanese merchantman, Yamazuki Maru, scoring two direct hits (1944)
  • Marilyn Monroe was “discovered” while working in the Radioplane OQ-3 UAV factory (1945)

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Amazing UAV facts

Source: McDaid and Oliver, “Smart Weapons”, Barnes & Noble 1997

2-1a

slide3

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Historical comparison - US

  • Pre-World War II
  • Manned aircraft
    • - Reciprocating engines
    • - Biplanes to monoplanes
    • - Fabric to semi-monocoque
  • Unmanned
    • - First unmanned vehicle
    • - First UAV
  • 1950s
  • Manned aircraft
    • - Turbojets mature
    • - Advanced metalics
    • - Supersonics mature
  • Unmanned
    • - First real systems
    • - UAVs stagnate
  • World War II
  • Manned aircraft
    • - Recips mature
    • - Structures mature
    • - First jets
  • Unmanned
    • - First combat use
    • - First drones
  • 1960s
  • Manned aircraft
    • - Turbofans mature
    • - First composites
    • - First fly by wire
    • - Complex analog systems
  • Unmanned
    • - UAVs go to war
  • Other - Unmanned space
  • 1980s
  • Manned aircraft
    • - Commercial FBW
    • - Composites mature
    • - Full digital systems
  • Unmanned
    • - Cruise missiles
    • - Tactical UAV (again)
  • 1970s
  • Manned aircraft
    • - Full fly by wire
    • - Early digital systems
  • Unmanned
    • - First combat UAV
    • - First research UAV
    • - First tactical UAV
  • 1990s- Unmanned
    • - DARO Family of Vehicles
    • - Tactical UAVs (again)
    • - USAF / DARPA UCAV
  • Other - Reusable launchers
  • 2002 and on
    • - UAVs mature
    • - Manned/unmanned synergy,co-existence
  • 1990s- Manned aircraft
    • - Co-cured composites
    • - Pilots as managers
    • - Netted systems

2-2

slide4

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Pre War

Kettering Bug (1918)

Aerial Torpedo

Radioplane 0Q-2A

(1935)

Culver PQ-14B

(1940)

UAV

UAV

Target drones

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-3

slide5

Design of UAV Systems

USAAF BQ-7 (B-17F)

UAV

UAV

UAV

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

World War II

V-1 Buzz Bomb

U.S. Buzz Bomb

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-4

slide6

Design of UAV Systems

Matador- 600 NMi Range

UAV

Mace - 1217 Nmi Range

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Snark - 5497 NMi Range

1950s

Strategic

Surface-to-Surface Missiles

USSR had similar types

of systems

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-5

slide7

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

Regulus 1

Regulus 2

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1950s (cont’d)

Submarine and Surface Launched Missiles

USSR also had

similar types

http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/theater/regulus1.htm

2-6

slide8

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

Lightning Bug

AQM-34

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1960s

Reconnaissance UAVs

UAV

D21 Tagboard on

M12 Mother Ship

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-7

slide9

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

UAV

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1960s - other

Launch and space systems

http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/imint/4cor1

http://www.fas.org

2-8

slide10

Design of UAV Systems

EO Maverick

EO Hobo

UAV

EO Maverick Attacking SAM Site

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1970s

Combat UAVs - Have Lemon AQM-34

UAV

UAV

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-9

slide11

Design of UAV Systems

Boeing YQM-94A B-Gull

Teledyne Ryan YQM-96A R-Tern

Endurance 28 hrs 11 min Un-refueled

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1970s

Reconnaissance

(Recce) UAVs

UAV

Compass Cope -

High Altitude Long

Endurance (HALE)

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/sources.htm

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-10

slide12

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1970s

Cruise Missiles

General Dynamics BGM-109

Boeing AGM-86

http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/smart/bgm-109.htm

2-11

slide13

Design of UAV Systems

YF-16 RPRV

HiMAT

Self-Repairing

Flight Control Sys.

XBQM-106

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1970s

Flight Research UAVs

UAV

http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/gallery/photo/index.html

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-12

slide14

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1970s

Tactical UAV - Lockheed Aquila

UAV

2-13

slide15

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1980s

Cruise Missiles

General Dynamics AGM-129

GD BGM-109G

GD

UGM-109C

GD RGM-109C

http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/smart/bgm-109.htm

2-14

slide16

Design of UAV Systems

Boeing Condor

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1980s

UAV

HALE UAV

http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/annex/ans.htm

2-15

slide17

Design of UAV Systems

Pioneer - USN/USMC

US Army Hunter

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1980s

Tactical and Medium Endurance UAVs

UAV

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/pioneer.htm

GNAT-750

MR - UAV

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/sources.htm

2-16

slide18

Design of UAV Systems

Outrider (TUAV)

Predator (Tier II)

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1990s

UAV

DARO UAVs

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/outrider.htm

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/predator.htm

Dark Star (Tier III-)

Global Hawk (Tier II+)

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/global_hawk.htm

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/darkstar.htm

2-17

slide19

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Global Hawk & Predator

Size Comparison

http://www.tdyryan.com/04_Programs/Global_Hawk/GH_System_Desc.PDF

2-18

slide20

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1990s - Tactical UAV

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/sources.htm

UAV

Alliant Techsystems

Outrider

General Atomics

Prowler

US Army Selects AAI Shadow 200

TRW/S-TEC

Sentry

2-19

slide21

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

1990s - VTUAV

NG Fire Scout selected

UAV

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/vtuav.htm

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/vtuav.htm

Cancelled

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/vtuav.htm

2-20

slide22

Design of UAV Systems

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

UAV

http://www.army.mil/armyimages.htm

c 2002 LM Corporation

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Introduction to UAVs

1990s - Manned synergy

2-21

slide23

Design of UAV Systems

Design of UAV Systems

UAV

UAV

c 2002 LM Corporation

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Introduction to UAVs

1990s - Reusable launchers

http://www.fas.org

2-22

slide24

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Next subject

  • Lesson objective -
      • Short UAV History (with admitted US Focus)
      • Where are they headed?
      • What are the challenges?
        • Design
        • Technology
  • Lesson expectations -
      • Gain Familiarity
      • Appreciate breadth of UAV design options

2-23

slide25

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - DARPA/Army

Unmanned Combat Armed Rotorcraft (UCAR)

  • Armed unmanned complement to manned systems
    • - Future Combat System
    • - RHA-66 Comanche
  • Perform the most dangerous missions
    • - Strike and support
  • $500M over four (4) phases
    • - First phase 12 months, four (4) contractors
    • - Many competitors

Plus...

Raytheon

Sikorsky

Lockheed Martin

2-24

slide26

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - DARPA/USAF UCAV

X-45A

X-45B

2-25

slide27

Design of UAV Systems

http://www.strange-mecha.com/aircraft/x/USN-X.htm

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/uav.htm

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - DARPA/Navy UCAV

  • AIR VEHICLE
  • XX,XXX lb Gross Weight
  • X,XXX lb Empty Weight
  • High subsonic speed
  • Med-high altitude
  • XXX-XXXX nmi radius
  • XXXX-XXXX lb payload

Requirements

increasing?

http://www.northrop grumman.com

2-26

slide28

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - other DARPA

A-160 Hummingbird

http://www.auvsi.org/members

http://www.vectorsite.net/avuav7.html

http://www.darpa.mil/tto/programs/hum_war.html

  • Hingeless, low disk-loading & RPM rigid rotor
  • VTOL range > 2,000nm
  • Endurance > 24-48 hours

http://www.darpa.mil/tto/programs/hum_war.html

2-27

slide29

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - Global Hawk

http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/global_hawk.htm

  • ACTD successfully completed
  • Low rate initial production approved
    • - 17 air vehicles plus four mission and launch control elements
  • Full-rate production starts FY-06
    • - 2 UAVs per year through FY 09, 4 thereafter
  • Assessing new payloads - signals intelligence
    • - Requires payload weight/volume increase
  • Will remain unarmed

2-28

slide30

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - Predator

  • Predator A armed with Hellfire missiles

http://www.auvsi.org/members/us.cfm

  • USAF orders 2 Predator B prototypes for evaluation
    • - Honeywell TPE-331-10T, flat-rated to 750shp
    • - 4,500kg take-off gross weight
    • - Max speed / altitude - 210 Kt / 50Kft
    • - 20m wingspan
    • - Triplex systems
    • - 1,360kg fuel
    • - 340kg internal payload
    • - 1360kg external payload
    • - 6 store stations/14 Hellfires

Predator B

http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/PAO/PAIS/HTML/FS-073-DFRC.html

2-29

slide31

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - USMC

Affordably expendable UAV

2-30

slide32

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Dragon Eye approach

2-31

slide33

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - US Navy Roadmap

Today

MRE Transitioning to UCAV-N?

2-32

slide34

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Today - US Navy VTUAV?

(Source data : Janes - All the Worlds Aircraft; UAVs and Targets)

2-33

slide35

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Tomorrow

UAV

Another generation of UAVs & UCAVS

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company

2-34

slide36

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Final subject

  • Lesson objective -
      • Short UAV History (with admitted US Focus)
      • Where are they headed?
      • What are the challenges?
        • Design
        • Technology
  • Lesson expectations -
      • Gain Familiarity
      • Appreciate breadth of UAV design options

2-35

slide37

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Design and technology challenges

  • System Level
    • - Concepts of Operation
    • - Communications availability/reliability
    • - Multi-UAV operations
    • - UAVs in manned airspace
  • Air Vehicle
    • - Reliability and Safety
    • - Very long endurance
    • - Survivability
    • - Cost
  • Mission control
    • - Reliability and Safety
    • - Operators per vehicle
    • - Multi-vehicle control
    • - Cost
  • Payloads
    • - Auto target recognition
    • - On board data processing
    • - Data compression
    • - Cost
  • Support system
    • - Reliability and Safety
    • - Logistics footprint
    • - Off base support
    • - Aerial refueling
    • - Cost

2-36

slide38

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Example - Manned airspace

  • All countries have rules for how aircraft must operate in their airspace.
  • Most follow guidelines developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
  • Rules apply to two types of airspace
    • - Enroute airspace - the airways
    • - Terminal airspace - around airports
  • Airspace rules are based on manned aircraft experience
    • The established system is complex and slow to change
  • Pilots, not ground controllers, have primary responsibility for safe operation/separation of aircraft
  • UAVs have ground (?) controllers not pilots
  • UAVs will have to fit into a pilot based system

2-37

slide39

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Example - Logistics footprint

2-38

slide40

Design of UAV Systems

Main Base

Forward Base

Emergency Base

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Example - Base operations

2-39

slide41

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Question

What do these challenges have to do with us (Aerospace Engineers)?

  • UAVs are air vehicles, they fly like airplanes and operate in an airplane environment
    • - They are designed like air vehicles
    • - They have to meet flight critical air vehicle requirements
    • - Aerospace engineers understand the environment, the requirements and the design challenges
  • We know how to integrate complex, multi-disciplinary systems
  • We provide leadership in development of air vehicle systems
    • - UAVs are simply our next air vehicle system challenge

2-40

slide42

Design of UAV Systems

c 2002 LM Corporation

Introduction to UAVs

Intermission

2-41