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Introduction To IBM Mainframe Systems. Chapter 1-2 Review. Objectives. Identify Basic Components Of Mainframe Processors Identify Difference In Architecture IBM’s z/Series Processors And Earlier Systems Types Of I/O Devices On Mainframes Define Tracks And Cylinder

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introduction to ibm mainframe systems

Introduction To IBM Mainframe Systems

Chapter 1-2 Review

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

objectives
Objectives
  • Identify Basic Components Of Mainframe Processors
  • Identify Difference In Architecture
    • IBM’s z/Series Processors And Earlier Systems
  • Types Of I/O Devices On Mainframes
  • Define Tracks And Cylinder
  • Describe Features Of Mainframe OS:
    • Virtual Storage
    • Multiprogramming
    • Spooling
    • Batch Processing
    • Time Sharing.
  • Describe MVS, OS/390, And Z/Os

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

the basic architecture for ibm mainframe systems

Figure 1-01a

The Basic Architecture For IBM Mainframe Systems
  • The z/OS Redbook Shows How It Evolved Into---

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

hardware terms you should know
Hardware Terms You Should Know
  • Central processing unit, or CPU
  • Cache
  • Channels (ESCON/FICON channels)
  • I/O devices
  • Multiprocessor systems
  • PR/SM
  • Logical partitions (LPAR’s)

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

i o devices that connect to mainframe servers
I/O Devices That Connect To Mainframe Servers
  • Direct access storage devices, or DASD
  • Tape Drives and Optical Disks
  • Display And Other Terminals
  • Printers

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

virtual storage
Virtual Storage

Figure 1-08a

An overview of virtual storage and multiprogramming

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

spooling
Spooling

Figure 1-09a

How the operating system spools output from application programs

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

batch processing

Figure 1-10a

Batch Processing

How batch processing works

  • Job Control Language

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

time sharing
Time Sharing

Figure 1-11a

Multiple users in a time sharing environment

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

time line
Time Line

Figure 1-12a

The evolution of the OS/390 and z/OS operating system

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

a partial listing of os 390 and z os services
A Partial Listing Of OS/390 And z/OS Services
  • Base Control Program (BCP or MVS)
  • Workload Manager (WLM)
  • Systems Management Services
  • Application Enablement Services
  • OS/390 UNIX System Services
  • Distributed computing services
  • Communication Server
  • LAN Services Network Computing Services
  • Network File System (NFS)
  • Softcopy Services

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

new features in z os version 1 release 2
New Features In z/OS Version 1, Release 2
  • HiperSockets
  • TCP/IP Networking enhancements
  • Internet and Intranet Security enhancements
  • Distributed Print
  • New File System and C++ compiler
  • Intelligent Resource Director (IRD)

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

chapter 2
Chapter 2
  • OS/390 and z/OS concepts and terms

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

objectives14
Objectives
  • Applied objective
    • Assign an appropriate name to a new data set.
  • Knowledge objectives
    • Identify what an address space is.
    • In general terms, explain how address spaces are used to implement virtual storage and multiprogramming.
    • In general terms, explain how paging is used to transfer portions of an address space to and from real storage.
    • In general terms, explain how swapping is used to transfer entire address spaces in and out of virtual storage.
    • Identify the information contained in a volume label.
    • Describe the role of the VTOC in processing DASD data sets.
    • Describe the three data set organizations that aremost commonly used today: sequential, partitioned, and VSAM key-sequenced.
    • Distinguish between master and user catalogs.
    • Describe how the high-level qualifier in a data set name is commonly used.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

objectives 2
Objectives (2)
  • Knowledge objectives (Continued)
    • Describe unit allocation, volume allocation, and data set allocation.
    • List and describe the three types of open modes that can be used to open a file.
    • Distinguish between a job and a job step.
    • Identify the basic functions of the JOB, EXEC, and DD JCL statements.
    • Describe the basic function of a Job Entry Subsystem.
    • Name the five steps that are involved in processing a job.
    • Describe how the job class and priority affect the scheduling of a job.
    • Describe the four types of SYSOUT data that are produced by most jobs: the JES message log, the JCL listing, the system message log, and program output.
    • Describe how the output class affects the handling of SYSOUT data set.
    • Distinguish between system generation and system initialization.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

address spaces

Figure 2-01a

Address spaces
  • Key Concepts

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

multiple virtual storage

Figure 2-02a

Multiple Virtual Storage
  • Uses DASD to Expand Memory

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

address space swapping

Figure 2-03a

Address Space Swapping
  • Locating The Pages

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

a virtual storage address space

Figure 2-04a

A Virtual Storage Address Space
  • Two Basic Areas
    • The Private Area
    • The Common Area.
  • Special Provisions For The First 16mb Of Address
  • Common Areas Have Two Sections.
    • Above The 16MB Line
    • Below It.
  • Common Area Contains
    • The Nucleus
    • Other Operating System Data.
  • The Private Area Contains
    • Data Unique To Each User’s Address Space
    • The Program Being Executed.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

dataspaces and hiperspaces on a system

Figure 2-05a

Dataspaces And Hiperspaces On A System
  • Definitions

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

dasd labels identify files on a volume

Figure 2-06a

DASD Labels Identify Files On A Volume
  • z/OS identifies data sets on DASD with labels.
  • DASD volumes contain a volume label,
  • The VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) contains labels calledData Set Control Blocks, or DSCBs,

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

rules for forming data set names
Rules For Forming Data Set Names
  • Length 1 to 44 characters (standard) 1 to 35 characters (generation data group; see chapter 12) Only first 17 characters are used for tape data sets
  • Characters Alphanumeric (A-Z, 0-9) National (@,#, and $) Period (.)
  • Qualifiers Data set names with more than 8 characters broken intoqualifiers 1 to 8 characters. Separate qualifiers with periods.
  • First character The first character of each qualifier must be a letter or national character.
  • Last character The last character of a data set name should not be a period.

A valid data set name

AR.TRANS.Y2001

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

file organization

Figure 2-07a

File Organization

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

partitioned data set with three members
Partitioned Data Set With Three Members

Figure 2-08a

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

catalog structure

Figure 2-09a

Catalog Structure
  • The relationships among the master catalog, user catalogs, and data sets

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

the ebcdic codes for alphanumeric characters
The EBCDIC Codes For Alphanumeric Characters

Figure 2-10b

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

the three levels of data set allocation
The Three Levels Of Data Set Allocation
  • Level 1: Unit allocation
    • generic name or group name.
    • A generic name an IBM-supplied name indicating a device type
    • A group name, or esoteric name, flexible way to allocate units.
  • Level 2: Volume allocation
    • Volume serial number (vol-ser).
    • Non-specific volume request
      • Non-specific volume requests aren’t valid for existing data sets.
  • Level 3: Data set allocation
    • For new data sets, file labels are created, space allocated, and the VTOC is updated.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

how data sets are processed

Figure 2-12a

How Data Sets Are Processed

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

what this course is about
What This Course Is About
  • Jobs
  • Job Control Language JCL
  • JES

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

three basic jcl statements
Three Basic JCL Statements
  • JOB information that identifies the job.
  • EXEC Indicates the program to be executed.
  • DD Identifies a file to be processed.

JCL statements for a job that prints a report

//MM01RN JOB (36512),'R MENENDEZ',NOTIFY=MM01

//RPTRUN EXEC PGM=RPT3000

//CUSTMAST DD DSNAME=MM01.CUSTOMER.MASTER,DISP=SHR

//SALESRPT DD SYSOUT=A

//ERRLIST DD SYSOUT=A

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

how jes2 and jes3 process jobs

Figure 2-13b

How JES2 and JES3 process jobs
  • How a job enters the system
    • Entering JCL commands into a display terminal.
    • Terminal user issues:
      • SUBMIT, or SUB, command
      • JES2 or JES3 then copies it to the queue on the JES spool.
  • Scheduling for execution
    • JES examines jobs in the queue and prioritizes the work.
    • Job class and priority classify a job’s importance.
      • An initiator program runs in the system region of an address space eligible for batch job processing.
      • Each initiator can handle one job at a time.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

job classes
Job Classes
  • Typical job class assignments
    • Job class Characteristics
    • A Execute within 15 minutes of submission.
    • B Execute within 30 minutes of submission.
    • C Execute within 1 hour of submission.
    • D Execute overnight.
    • H Hold until released by an operator.
    • L Execute within 15 minutes of submission
          • Each step is limited to 1 minute of execution time.
  • How job classes are assigned to initiators
    • Initiator Eligible job classes
    • 1 A
    • 2 B,C,D,H,L
    • 3 B,C
    • 4 C

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

how a job is executed once an initiator selects it

Figure 2-15

How A Job Is Executed Once An Initiator Selects It

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

output controls
OUTPUT Controls
  • The SYSOUT data sets produced by most jobs
    • SYSOUT data set Description
    • JESMSGLG A listing of messages produced by JES2 or JES3 as the job was executed.
    • JESJCL The JES JCL listing is a listing of the JCL processed by the job.
    • JESYSMSG The system message log is a collection of message produced as the job was executed.
    • SYSOUT SYSOUT data produced by a program executed in the job.
  • Typical output class assignments
    • Output class Type of output
    • A Standard printer output, routed to one of the installation’s high-speed printers
    • B Special printer output.
    • X Held output that stays on the SYSOUT queue until released for printing or deleted.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

sysgen
SYSGEN
  • System generation
    • System generation (sysgen) creates the system.
    • IBM sends or Downloads distribution libraries.
      • System generation selects and assembles components needed to create a working system.
    • Systems programmer codes special macro instructions specifying how components should be put together.
    • The output is a series of system libraries containing, the executable code that makes up the operating system.

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

initialization
Initialization
  • System initialization
    • The process of starting a previously generated system
      • Immediately after sysgen
      • Reinitialized due to system maintenance or a system error.
  • Operator uses the system console to start an Initial Program Load, or IPL.
    • System clears its real storage
    • Loads the operating system from the system libraries

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM

end presentation
End Presentation

© 2002 - Mike Murach & Associates, 2007 - HCC, IBM