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Cell Growth and Survival. Biology 2013 Fall Semester. Review:. Cell theory :. All living things are made of cells . Cells are the basic unit of function and structure in living things. Living cells come only from other living cells. Prokaryotes are …. unicellular b acteria.

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cell growth and survival

Cell Growth and Survival

Biology 2013

Fall Semester

cell theory
Review:Cell theory:
  • All living things are made of cells.
  • Cells are the basic unit of function and structure in living things.
  • Living cells come only from other living cells.
prokaryotes are
Prokaryotes are …



Strep bacteria


Salmonella bacteria

eukaryotes are
Eukaryotes are…

Plants, animals… humans!

plant inputs outputs
Plant Inputs:

Plant outputs:

Plant inputs & outputs

Carbon dioxide






Minerals -------------------- Growth, heat

animal human inputs outputs
Animal Inputs:

Animal outputs:

Animal & Human inputs & outputs


Carbon dioxide





all cells capture use energy
All cells capture & use energy

Plant cells

Animal cells!

Prokaryotic bacteria

  • Need energy to:
    • move
    • change shape
    • repair structure
    • make new cell parts
    • transport food
    • expel wastes
Plants absorb Sunlight during Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis part 1:

Light-Dependent Reaction

  • inputs: water + sunlight

Location: thylakoids in the chloroplasts

Light energy used to split water (H20). H’s (hydrogens) stay and O’s (oxygen) is released.

Output: oxygen

Then the stroma builds glucose during the Calvin Cyle
  • The Calvin Cycle
  • Location:Stroma (space) inside chloroplasts
  • Inputs: carbon dioxide
  • C from CO2 is used to build C6H12O6 =glucose


Once you

make glucose(plants)


eat glucose (animals & humanss)

then you need to get energy from glucose using…

Cellular Respiration- Organic compounds (GLUCOSE) broken down to create energy/ATP

*Inputs: oxygen + glucose

*Outputs: energy (ATP) + water + carbon dioxide

So, once cells have their inputs & energy,

how long can they live? What is the life cycle of a cell? Can/could a cell live forever?

the cell cycle is the life cycle of a cell
The Cell Cycle is the life cycle of a cell
  • One eukaryotic cell:
  • Grows (copies DNA, organelles)
  • Divides exactly in half,

Maintains same size,

same structure

= 2 identical cells

interphase g1
Interphase: G1
  • During this phase, the eukaryotic cell
    • Duplicates every organelle
    • Increases in size
interphase s phase
Interphase: S-phase
  • S= Synthesis = to make
  • Replicates DNA
  • 1 strand DNA 2 identical strands DNA
interphase g2
Interphase: G2
  • Restriction Checkpoint:
    • IF the cell contents are perfect, then cell proceeds to M-phase (cell division).
    • IF there were mistakes, then apoptosis occurs (induced cell death).
m phase
  • M=Mitosis=splitting of cell’s nucleus
  • Nucleus divides in half first
    • WHY should this happen first??

Ends with cytokinesis (cell splits in half)

Animal cell in anaphase

Plant cell in anaphase

cells are identical because
Cells are identical because…

They have the exact same DNA as the parent cell

when cell division goes wrong
When cell division goes wrong…

If a mistake happens during interphase and a cell is able to get past the restriction checkpoint at the end of interphase, THEN

a cell has the potential

to divide forever


Henritta Lacks

immortal cells
Immortal Cells

Immortal cell: a cell that doesn’t age; a cell that doesn’t die from old age; a cell that never dies.

There is no restriction checkpoint to stop the cell from dividing. (There are no cyclins to stop or allow division).

Cancer cells are considered to be immortal because they never die of old age.

HeLa cells, cancer cells from Henrietta Lacks, have been dividing continuously since 1951.

what is cancer
What is Cancer?
  • Cancer is a cell that doesn’t stop dividing.
  • One cancer cell tumor (mass of cells)
  • Mestasis (cancer cells break off and spread to other parts of your body).