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Nightshade (Solanaceous) Family. Includes: Food plants: tomato, ____________, eggplant, potato Medicinal plants: mandrake, henbane Weeds: Jimsonweed, _________________ Tobacco Nightshade vegetables were originally considered poisonous High in physiologically active _____________.

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Nightshade solanaceous family l.jpg
Nightshade (Solanaceous) Family

  • Includes:

    • Food plants: tomato, ____________, eggplant, potato

    • Medicinal plants: mandrake, henbane

    • Weeds: Jimsonweed, _________________

    • Tobacco

  • Nightshade vegetables were originally considered poisonous

    • High in physiologically active _____________


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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

  • Key concepts

    • Center of origin and domestication

    • Folklore associated with tomato

    • Growth characteristics

    • Tomato culture

    • Fruit variation

    • Harvesting

    • Problems


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Center of origin

  • Native to Andean region in northwestern South America

    • Likely that Peruvian Incas traded to Aztecs, then passed to Conquistadors

    • Wild “tomatoes” still grow in ______________ Andes

  • By 1600’s tomatoes eaten widely in southern Europe


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What is domestication?

  • Tomato domestication took place in Mexico by Aztecs

    • Name comes from ______________

  • What changes occurred?

    • Larger sized fruit

    • Flower changes to ensure self-pollination

    • Loss of dormancy


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Tomato folklore

  • Love apple

    • French misunder-stood name to be pomo d’amore, or love apple

    • Became known as powerful aphrodisiac

  • Tomatoes cause arthritis pain to get worst

    • Macrobiotic lifestyle prohibits all nightshades


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Most popular garden vegetable

  • Why?

    • _________ to grow

    • A few plants produce enough fruit for a family

    • Ripe fruit from garden has a far better flavor than store purchased fruit


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Growth characteristics

  • Determinant

    • Produces a ___________ cluster at the terminal growth point

    • Stops growth at a certain height

    • Fruit matures over shorter time

    • Some cultivars can be grown in ________________


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Growth characteristics

  • Indeterminant

    • Never set a ________________ flower cluster

    • Continue to grow taller

    • Older cultivars

    • Fruit may be late in maturing


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Tomato Culture

  • Sprawl on ground

  • Tied to stake

    • Used by most gardeners

  • _______________

    • May be made from wood or wire


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Pruning or suckering

  • Pruning or “_________”

    • Suckers are small lateral shoots in leaf axils or crotch of small branches

    • Garden Gal on suckers

    • Most often done to staked tomatoes

    • Why remove suckers?


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Fruit colors

  • Red, yellow, pink, _________, orange, black, bi-color


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Yellow/Orange Tomatoes

  • Are yellow tomatoes less acidic than red tomatoes?

    • No

    • Greater _____________ content

    • Flavor difference due to balance of sugars to acids


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Fruit size

  • Smallest are current tomatoes

  • Extra-large

    • Are relatively _______ maturing

    • Fruit may be extremely large (can be more than 1 lb)

    • Cat-facing can be a problem


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Tomato use - Processing

  • Paste tomato

    • Used for ____________, pastes, sauces, and canning

  • Are usually determinant types

    • Why?

  • Fruit characteristics

    • Solid

    • Meaty or ___________

    • Low moisture


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Tomato use

  • Salad tomatoes

    • Have __________ growth and are very productive

    • Fruit size ranges from 1 to 2 inches in diameter

    • Cherry

      • Are too big for a single mouthful

Grape

Larger than cherry tomato

Sold on the _______________

Cluster

Smaller than cherry tomato

Separate species

More intense flavor


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Harvesting Tomatoes

  • Fruit should be ________ and fully colored

    • Allow to fully ripen on the plant for best flavor

  • High temperatures

    • _______________ softening process

    • Harvest when fruit color has started to develop

  • At frost

    • Harvest all green mature fruit


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Problem – tomato hornworm

  • Feed on ____________ of tomatoes and related plants

  • Control

    • Hand-picking

    • Bt

    • ____________ wasps


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Problem – blossom end rot

  • A dry, leathery brown rot of the ___________ end of the fruit

  • Caused by poor calcium distribution in the fruit

  • Solutions

    • Select cultivars that are less susceptible

    • Use ________________

    • Maintain even watering


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Problem – fruit cracking

  • Can be caused by sudden abundant ________________ , especially if it follows drought


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Problem – sun scald

  • Can plants get sunburn?

  • ______________ area on the fruit develops with overexposure to sunlight

    • Prone to secondary infection by mold


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