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Intermediate Geography: Urban. Transport Systems. What do you need to know?. How commuter towns effect transport links Changes in transport systems The impact of ring roads Road pricing systems Reasons for increased congestion How to reduce congestion Transport problems in ELDCs.

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what do you need to know
What do you need to know?
  • How commuter towns effect transport links
  • Changes in transport systems
  • The impact of ring roads
  • Road pricing systems
  • Reasons for increased congestion
  • How to reduce congestion
  • Transport problems in ELDCs
commuter zones
Commuter Zones

Villages are becoming more popular places for people to live, and they travel elsewhere to work. This can cause problems because:

  • Villages become larger and lose their character
  • Cities have to cope with the amount of commuters travelling into the city every day
  • Congestion during rush hour, an accident or break-down can cause grid-lock.
  • Air pollution bad in areas where streets narrow and buildings tall as fumes trapped.
  • Large areas of valuable land are being used for car parks
  • New roads cost a lot
changes to transport systems in emdcs
Changes to transport systems in EMDCs
  • New roads, motorways, bypasses and ring roads built around and through cities to cope with traffic.
  • Better quality of public transport
  • Taxing vehicles using inner city (congestion charging)
  • Park and ride schemes
ring roads
Ring roads

E.g. M25 London

  • Convenient way around London, links to main motorways
  • Reduce volume of traffic in and out of city
  • Should reduce environmental problems, road maintenance, congestion and accidents in inner city.
problems with ring roads
Problems with ring roads
  • Property prices increase next to ring roads as it attracts industry and provides good transport links for commuters
  • Pressure on green belt
  • Wildlife habitats lost
  • Pollution in urban-rural fringe due to traffic fumes
road pricing schemes
Road pricing schemes

Drivers can be charged to use roads in a variety of ways:

  • Tolls on major roads (e.g. M6)
  • Charges vary depending on distance travelled and types of vehicle
  • Congestion charges to travel through inner city e.g. London
  • Aims to reduce volume of traffic and improve air quality
  • Money raised used improve public transport and roads.

Congestion charging

Tolls – bridges, tunnels and motorways

traffic congestion
Traffic congestion

Traffic congestion has increased because:

  • Increased volume of traffic at rush hour
  • Roads unable to cope with volume of traffic – old roads often narrow
  • Inadequate public transport
  • Parking on main roads and lack or parking facilities within the city centre area.
measures to reduce congestion
Measures to reduce congestion
  • New road systems – ring roads, one-way systems, bus lanes, contraflow systems, wider roads, by-passes
  • Parking restrictions on roads
  • Alternative means of transport – underground or train.
  • Park and ride
  • Cheap buses
  • Congestion charging and increased parking charges.
problems created by these measures
Problems created by these measures
  • By discouraging people from coming into the city, retailers can lose trade
  • Alternatives, e.g. out-of-town shopping centres solve traffic problems but can lead to decline of CBD. This is where the government earns a lot of its finance.
  • Plans to introduce tolls and increase fuel price so that railways can be upgraded and other transport services improved.
what s in place in edinburgh
What's in place in Edinburgh?
  • Park and ride at Newcraighall, the Gyle
  • Greenways – reserved for buses, taxis and bikes. Used at busiest times of the day.
  • Restrictions on traffic in CBD – one-way system, buses and taxis only along Princes Street
  • By-pass built around Edinburgh
  • Tramways have been introduced between Haymarket and Leith.
  • Congestion zone proposed
past paper question
Past paper question:

“Traffic congestion is a major problem in cities in EMDCs”

Referring to a city you have studied in an EMDC, describe in detail the measures which can be taken to reduce the problem of traffic congestion. (6)

points you should have included in your answer
Points you should have included in your answer:

A number of measures have been implemented in Edinburgh including:

  • Bus lanes introduced and bus services improved making bus travel quicker and easier than using a car. Also cheaper. (1)
  • Park and ride schemes (1) where people park their car outside of the city and travel in by bus for a low charge. (1)
  • By-pass built around Edinburgh (1)

Proposed schemes include:

  • Congestion charges for people who wasn’t to drive their cars into the city centre (1)
  • Tram system to improve public transport network
  • A second bridge over the Forth to relieve congestions/ car ferry from Portobello (1).
  • Pedestrianisation of CBD to stop cars driving straight through it. This will ease congestion and make the CBD safer.
transport problems in eldcs
Transport problems in ELDCs

ELDCs have similar problems to EMDCs, but they are made worse due to lack of development.

  • Insufficient funds to pay for a transport infrastructure that works
  • Transport networks inherited from colonial days
  • Developments aimed at industrial use, e.g. port, rather than for mass movements of people. There is little money left to improve access from poorest parts.
  • Need an efficient transport network to aid development.
  • Wealth concentrated around areas where transport routes are more developed. Lead to uneven development between rural and urban areas.
solution to problems in eldc cities
Solution to problems in ELDC cities
  • Increased provision of public transport
  • Large scale use of bicycles
  • Build a more efficient transport system. This is hindered by lack of funds
case study mumbai
Case study: Mumbai
  • Read p 107-108
  • Answer Q1-5 on p108.