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Establishing the Purpose & Forming A Valid Hypothesis. Introduction to Research Ms.Johny. What should the Purpose include?.

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what should the purpose include
What should the Purpose include?
  • The inclusion of the purpose (sometimes called the objective) of the experiment often confuses writers. The biggest misconception is that the purpose is the same as the hypothesis.
  • Not quite. The purpose is broader, and is a statement of what you expect to gain or learn through the experiment.
what is a hypothesis
What is a Hypothesis?
  • A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event.
  • A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction.
  • Please note that scientific writing is more formal and is written in third person (the investigator or the researchers) rather than in first person (I or we).
how are hypotheses written
How Are Hypotheses Written?
  • Hypotheses take four formats:

a question, "Does temperature affect

fermentation?"

a conditional statement, "Temperature may affect

fermentation."

an “as” statement, “As temperature increases, as

production through fermentation will

also increase

an “If, then”statement, "If fermentation rate is

related to temperature, then increasing

the temperature will increase gas

production.

  • The format of a hypothesis includes the independent and dependent variable (what is to be manipulated and what is to be observed).
slide5

How Are Hypotheses Written?

Writing A Hypothesis

a question,

"Does temperature affect

fermentation?"

a conditional statement,

"Temperature may affect

fermentation."

an “If, then”statement,

"If fermentation rate is related

to temperature, then increasing

the temperature will increase

gas production.

an “as” statement,

“As temperature increases,

as production through

fermentation will also increase

The format of a hypothesis includes the independent and dependent

variable (what is to be manipulated and what is to be observed).

slide6

How Are Hypotheses Written?

The format of a hypothesis includes the independent and dependent

variable (what is to be manipulated and what is to be observed).

are these valid hypotheses
Are these Valid Hypotheses?
  • Chocolate may cause pimples.
  • Salt in soil may affect plant growth.
  • Plant growth may be affected by the color of the light.
  • Bacterial growth may be affected by temperature.
  • Ultra violet light may cause skin cancer.
  • Temperature may cause leaves to change color.
why or why not
Why or Why Not?
  • All of these are examples of hypotheses because they use the tentative word "may.".
  • However, their form is not particularly useful. Using the word may does not suggest how you would go about proving it.
  • If these statements had not been written carefully, they may not have even been hypotheses at all. For example, if we say "Trees will change color when it gets cold." we are making a prediction. Or if we write, "Ultraviolet light causes skin cancer." could be a conclusion.
  • One way to prevent making such easy mistakes is to formalize the form of the hypothesis.
formalized hypothesis
Formalized Hypothesis
  • A formalized hypothesis consists of an “If…Then..” Statement and Two Variables. If the IV does this, then the DV will do that. An “as” statement may also be considered formalized. As the IV does this, then the DV will do that.”
  • But not all if-then statements are hypotheses. For example, "If I play the lottery, then I will get rich. This is a simple prediction.
  • In a formalized hypothesis, a tentative relationship is stated. For example, if the frequency of winning is related to frequency of buying lottery tickets, "Then" is followed by a prediction of what will happen if you increase or decrease the frequency of buying lottery tickets.
  • The ultimate value of a formalized hypothesis is it forces us to think about what results we should look for in an experiment.
practice
Practice
  • Rewrite the first four hypotheses using the formalized style shown earlier. Single underline the dependent variable and double underline the independent variable in the If clause of each hypothesis.
why is a rationale statement necessary
Why is a Rationale Statement Necessary?
  • A rationale statement provides a professional argument for the hypothesis you are submitting.
  • The rationale statement communicates the link between the expected outcome, prior knowledge, and new knowledge gained through research.
  • The hypothesis and rationale must enable readers to understand your professional thinking and understanding of the experiment.
what should the purpose include1
What should the Purpose include?
  • The inclusion of the ________ (sometimes called the objective) of the experiment often confuses writers. The biggest misconception is that the purpose is the same as the hypothesis.
  • Not quite. The purpose is ________, and is a statement of what you expect to ___ or learn through the experiment.
what is a hypothesis1
What is a Hypothesis?
  • A hypothesis is a ________ statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event.
  • A useful hypothesis is a _____ statement which may include a __________.
  • Please note that scientific writing is more ______ and is written in ____ person (the investigator or the researchers) rather than in _______ person (I or we).
how are hypotheses written1
How Are Hypotheses Written?
  • Hypotheses take four formats:

a _________, "Does temperature affect

fermentation?"

a __________ statement, "Temperature may affect

fermentation."

an “__” statement, “As temperature increases, as

production through fermentation will

also increase

an “__, ____”statement, "If fermentation rate is

related to temperature, then increasing

the temperature will increase gas

production.

  • The format of a hypothesis includes the ________ and __________ variable (what is to be manipulated and what is to be observed).
formalized hypothesis1
Formalized Hypothesis
  • A formalized hypothesis consists of an “__________” Statement and _______________. If the IV does this, then the DV will do that. An “as” statement may also be considered formalized. As the IV does this, then the DV will do that.”
  • But not all ___________ statements are hypotheses. For example, "If I play the lottery, then I will get rich. This is a simple prediction.
  • In a formalized hypothesis, a __________ relationship is stated. For example, if the frequency of winning is _________ to frequency of buying lottery tickets, "Then" is followed by a prediction of what will happen if you increase or decrease the frequency of buying lottery tickets.
  • The ultimate value of a ________ hypothesis is it forces us to think about what results we should look for in an experiment.
why is a rationale statement necessary1
Why is a Rationale Statement Necessary?
  • A _____________ provides a professional argument for the hypothesis you are submitting.
  • The rationale statement communicates the link between the _____________, prior knowledge, and ______________ gained through research.
  • The hypothesis and rationale must enable readers to ____________ your professional thinking and understanding of the __________.