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EU FP7 Funded Project No. 222889 ( 2009-2013)
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EU FP7 Funded Project No. 222889 ( 2009-2013)

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  1. Brussels Development Briefing n.32Fish-farming the new driver of the blue economy?3rd July 2013http://brusselsbriefings.netOverview of the significance of the fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunities.David Little, University of Stirling

  2. EU FP7 Funded Project No. 222889 (2009-2013) Overview of the significance of the fish-farming sector: challenges and opportunitiesAfrican, Caribbean and Pacific -ACP- countriesDavid LittleInstitute of AquacultureUniversity of Stirling

  3. Farming in water Photo Trevor Telfer Photo Andrew Shinn

  4. CTAs agenda • CTA is committed to sustainable development, increasing prosperity and improving the wellbeing of agricultural and rural populations in ACP countries in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner • Small-holders, sustainable intensification

  5. Relative contribution of aquaculture and capture fisheries to food fish consumption Aquaculture Capture FAO, 2012

  6. Overview of global fisheries, including aquaculture http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/jpg/0314-fishcatch-EN.jpg

  7. Fish consumption in terms of protein http://www.unep.org/dewa/vitalwater/article176.html

  8. Production intensity Mean data:2008-2010 Modified from FAO, 2012

  9. Contributions to the economy Mean data:2008-2010 Modified from FAO, 2012

  10. Sector growth Modified from FAO, 2012 Mean data:2008-2010 compared to 2003-2005

  11. Rapid transformation Shrimp and tilapia in China • From domestic demand to global trade • Led by shrimp but now being followed by white fish species, pangasius and tilapia • Exotic or local species? Source FAO, 2010, modified by Zhang et al, 2012

  12. Export or local? Belton et al, 2011

  13. Seafood –Number 1 exported commodity from developing countries FAO, 2012

  14. A story of cities and deltas… • Rapid growth of urban settlement • Increasing demand for animal source foods • Comparative change to aquatic food as a commodity……….. • Transformation of land and water use on deltas towards value-added products • Growth in national, regional and international trade

  15. ..from production to consumption

  16. Urbanisation Aquaculture has often developed and been sustained nearer high centres of population….. PHOTO. P.EDWARDS

  17. Urban aquaculture -Africa Clarias, Abuja,Nigeria Tilapia, Lake Volta, Ghana Photo AtandeTunde Photo Will Leschen

  18. Aquaculture development or aquaculture for development Belton and Little, 2011

  19. Development and change • Immanent: on-going, undirected • Interventionist: intentional, externally inserted • Returns to ‘small-scale’ typically less than 10-15% of household income • But often multiple, complex benefits • -more than 70% of farming families identified more than ten benefits of rice-fish in NW Bangladesh (Haque et al, 2010) • Incremental rather than transformational • Complexity of social structure and market incentives • Rapid uptake of commercial aquaculture by entrepreneurs rather than farmers

  20. Does size matter- ‘small-scale’ and poverty Belton, Haque and Little, 2012

  21. Commodity aquaculture • ‘Small-scale’ as a term is often misleading and generally not comparable to a small-holder producing a staple crop • Maybe many benefits elsewhere in the value chain • Commodity-orientated aquaculture is not always intensive

  22. Can export be compatible with local food security? Extensive ‘free-range’ shrimp ponds in Southwest Bangladesh

  23. Local food chains and employment • Income from extensive ‘shrimp’ ponds in southeast Bangladesh less than half of income from shrimp • Employment gains for the poorest groups

  24. Local fish for local people Photo:Susan Thompson– Inconsistent quality seed and feed often undermine sustainability post-intervention

  25. Cage aquaculture Cage farming in Ghana Crystal lakes-overseas investment Local markets Site limitations

  26. Limited freshwater sites • Cages Lake Victoria Uganda • Access to sites, exclusion of other users? Photo Will Leschen

  27. Challenges in attaining positive livelihood impacts • Aquatic animals in the diet-coastal, lake or delta living people • Markets-urbanisation, export (not just the West!) • Seed and hatchery • Feed and nutrient management • Markets • Governance • ….and broader development • Benefits not as producers but elsewhere in the value chain (employment, consumption)

  28. ‘Local’ international markets • Regional trade within Asia and between Asia and elsewhere is growing faster than conventional South-North trade • Traditional trade between African states in dried, smoked fish

  29. Input costs, output value FAO, 2012

  30. Jamaica • Beginning in the 1940s • by the late 1990s, >500ha, 100 farms • >3000MT - 85% one company • significant exports Photo Janielle Wallace

  31. 2007-8 • Loss of export markets • Focus on domestic but lack of competitiveness also • Post Hurricane damage interruptions in fry supply • Gradual contraction ; change from intensive to semi-intensive • Local price $4.50/ lb • Imported $2.10/ lb • Failure of ‘eat local tilapia’ campaign

  32. Seed and feed Extruded feeds in Ghana, Raanan Feeds Broodfish selection, Son hatchery Uganda Photo Will Leschen

  33. …not just fish and shellfish • Womens’ cooperative producing seaweed in Tanzania

  34. Linking Asia and Africa

  35. Examples of new projects • Development of insect larvae production to support high quality feed ingredients for fish and livestock production and off-set costs of sanitary waste disposal (Ghana) • Fisheries and aquaculture value chain development in Malawi and Uganda • Developing African Aquaculture Networks Towards Sustainable Innovation

  36. SARNISSA-networking Visit www.sarnissa.org and sign up now

  37. Thanks • CTA for the invitation • Will Leschen for African photographs • Neil Handisyde for graphics • Colleagues on the Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture Trade project • www.seatglobal.eu • Contact me on dcl1@stir.ac.uk