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Django & The OWASP Top 10. Jarret Raim Denim Group 2008. What is Django ?. Django is named after Django Reinhardt, a gypsy jazz guitarist from the 1930s to early 1950s. The ‘D’ is silent. It’s pronounced ‘ Jango ’.

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django the owasp top 10

Django& The OWASP Top 10

JarretRaim

Denim Group 2008

what is django
What is Django?
  • Django is named after Django Reinhardt, a gypsy jazz guitarist from the 1930s to early 1950s.
  • The ‘D’ is silent. It’s pronounced ‘Jango’.
  • “Django is a high-level Python Web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design.”
  • Developed by in-house programmers for several news sites.
  • Provides advanced functionality (ORM) and full applications (Admin) out of the box.
overall design goals
Overall Design Goals
  • Loose Coupling
    • The various layers of the framework shouldn’t “know” about each other unless absolutely necessary.
  • Less Code
    • Django apps should use as little code as possible; they should lack boilerplate.
    • Django should take full advantage of Python’s dynamic capabilities, such as introspection.
  • Quick Development
    • The point of a Web framework in the 21st century is to make the tedious aspects of Web development fast. Django should allow for incredibly quick Web development.
overall design goals1
Overall Design Goals
  • Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY)
    • Every distinct concept and/or piece of data should live in one, and only one, place. Redundancy is bad. Normalization is good.
  • Explicit Is Better Than Implicit
    • Magic is worth using only if it creates a huge convenience unattainable in other ways, and it isn’t implemented in a way that confuses developers who are trying to learn how to use the feature.
  • Consistency
    • The framework should be consistent at all levels. Consistency applies to everything from low-level (the Python coding style used) to high-level (the “experience” of using Django).
the zen of python

Beautiful is better than ugly.

  • Explicit is better than implicit.
  • Simple is better than complex.
  • Complex is better than complicated.
  • Flat is better than nested.
  • Sparse is better than dense.
  • Readability counts.
  • Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules.
  • Although practicality beats purity.
  • Errors should never pass silently.
  • Unless explicitly silenced.
  • In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess.
  • There should be one-- and preferably only one --obvious way to do it.
  • Although that way may not be obvious at first unless you're Dutch.
  • Now is better than never.
  • Although never is often better than *right* now.
  • If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad idea.
  • If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a good idea.
  • Namespaces are one honking great idea -- let's do more of those!
The Zen Of Python
  • Python is a open source dynamic programming language.
  • Python can interact heavily with C based plugins for speed.
  • Python can be run on the CLR (IronPython) or on the JVM (Jython).
a note about tools
A Note About Tools
  • While perfect IDE integration for a dynamic language is possible, the current options are not great.
  • Standard options available
    • Eclipse
    • Emacs
    • Vim
  • Several debuggers
    • ActiveState
    • Winpdb
  • Komodo / Open Komodo
    • Expensive
django and mvc
Django and MVC
  • Django appears to be a MVC framework, but redefines some basic terms.
    • The Controller is the “view”
    • The View the “template”
    • Model stays the same
  • In Django, the “view” describes the data that gets presented to the user.
    • It’s not necessarily how the data looks, but which data is presented.
    • The view describes which data you see, not how you see it.
  • Where does the “controller” fit in, then?
    • In Django’s case, it’s probably the framework itself: the machinery that sends a request to the appropriate view, according to the Django URL configuration.
  • Django is a “MTV” framework
    • “model”, “template”, and “view.”
request handling
Request Handling
  • Request is handled by server (mod_python, etc).
  • URLConf routes request to View.
  • View renders response.
  • Each section can be extended by middleware layers.
  • Example middleware
    • CSRF Protection
    • Authentication / Authorization
    • Cache
    • Transactions
urlconf
URLConf
  • urlpatterns = patterns('',
  • (r'^articles/(?P<year>\d{4})/(?P<month>\d{2})/$', views.month_archive),
  • (r'^foo/$', views.foobar_view, {'template_name': 'template1.html'}),
  • (r'^mydata/birthday/$', views.my_view, {'month': 'jan', 'day': '06'}),
  • (r'^mydata/(?P<month>\w{3})/(?P<day>\d\d)/$', views.my_view),
  • (r'^admin/', include('django.contrib.admin.urls')),
  • )
  • A regex mapping between the URLs of your application and the views that handle them.
  • Can point to custom views or Django supplied views.
  • Uses positional or named groups for parameter passing (?P<year>).
  • Can override view parameters like template name.
  • URLs can include ‘fake’ captured data.
urlconf design goals
URLConf Design Goals
  • Loose Coupling
    • URLs in a Django app should not be coupled to the underlying Python code.
    • For example, one site may put stories at /stories/, while another may use /news/.
  • Infinite Flexibility
    • URLs should be as flexible as possible. Any conceivable URL design should be allowed.
  • Encourage Best Practices
    • The framework should make it just as easy (or even easier) for a developer to design pretty URLs than ugly ones.
    • No file extensions or vignette-syle commas
  • Definitive URLs
    • Technically, foo.com/bar and foo.com/bar/ are two different URLs, and search-engine robots (and some Web traffic-analyzing tools) would treat them as separate pages. Django should make an effort to “normalize” URLs so that search-engine robots don’t get confused.
simple views
Simple Views
  • The job of the view is to build a ‘Context’ containing all data that will be passed to the template.
  • Views can return any data such as JSON objects, PDFs, streamed data, etc.

def current_datetime(request):

now = datetime.datetime.now()

html = "<html><body>It is now %s.</body></html>" % now

return HttpResponse(html)

def current_datetime(request):

now = datetime.datetime.now()

return render_to_response('current_datetime.html',

{'current_date': now})

view design goals
View Design Goals
  • Simplicity
    • Writing a view should be as simple as writing a Python function. Developers shouldn’t have to instantiate a class when a function will do.
  • Use Request Objects
    • Views should have access to a request object — an object that stores metadata about the current request. The object should be passed directly to a view function, rather than the view function having to access the request data from a global variable. This makes it light, clean and easy to test views by passing in “fake” request objects.
  • Loose Coupling
    • A view shouldn’t care about which template system the developer uses — or even whether a template system is used at all.
  • Differentiate Between GET & Post
    • GET and POST are distinct; developers should explicitly use one or the other. The framework should make it easy to distinguish between GET and POST data.
basic templates
Basic Templates

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN">

<html lang="en">

<head>

<title>Future time</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>My helpful timestamp site</h1>

<p>

In {{ hour_offset }} hour(s), it will be {{ next_time }}.

</p>

<hr>

<p>Thanks for visiting my site.</p>

</body> </html>

template design goals
Template Design Goals
  • Separate Logic from Presentation
    • We see a template system as a tool that controls presentation and presentation-related logic — and that’s it. The template system shouldn’t support functionality that goes beyond this basic goal.
  • Discourage Redundancy
    • Support template inheritance to support DRY.
  • Be Decoupled from HTML
    • Template system should generate any data, not just HTML.
  • XML should not be used for template languages
    • Using an XML engine to parse templates introduces a whole new world of human error in editing templates — and incurs an unacceptable level of overhead in template processing.
  • Assume Designer Competence
    • Django expects template authors are comfortable editing HTML directly.
template design goals part deux
Template Design Goals, Part Deux
  • Treat whitespace obviously
    • Any whitespace that’s not in a template tag should be displayed. (No Magic)
  • Don’t invent a programming language
    • The template system intentionally doesn’t allow the following:
      • Assignment to variables
      • Advanced logic
    • The Django template system recognizes that templates are most often written by designers, not programmers, and therefore should not assume Python knowledge.
  • Safety and security
    • The template system, out of the box, should forbid the inclusion of malicious code such as commands that delete database records.
  • Extensibility
    • The template system should recognize that advanced template authors may want to extend its technology.
template examples
Template Examples

{% for country in countries %}

<table>

{% for city in country.city_list %}

<tr>

<td>Country #{{ forloop.parentloop.counter }}</td>

<td>City #{{ forloop.counter }}</td>

<td>{{ city }}</td>

</tr>

{% endfor %}

</table>

{% endfor %}

{{ name|lower }}

{{ my_text|escape|linebreaks }}

{{ bio|truncatewords:"30" }}

{% if today_is_weekend %}

<p>Welcome to the weekend!</p>

{% else %} <p>Get back to work.</p> {% endif %}

{% ifequal user currentuser %}

<h1>Welcome!</h1>

{% endifequal %}

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN">

<html lang="en">

<head>

<title>{% block title %}{% endblock %}</title>

</head> <body>

<h1>My helpful timestamp site</h1>

{% block content %}{% endblock %}

{% block footer %}

<hr> <p>Thanks for visiting my site.</p>

{% endblock %}

</body> </html>

{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}

The current time

{% endblock %}

{% block content %}

<p>It is now {{ current_date }}.</p>

{% endblock %}

interacting with the database models
Interacting with the Database: Models
  • ORM definitions are simple Python objects.
  • Additional field types with additional semantics.
  • Generates database agnostic schemas.
  • Removes boilerplate (surrogate keys).

class Author(models.Model):

salutation = models.CharField(maxlength=10)

first_name = models.CharField(maxlength=30)

last_name = models.CharField(maxlength=40)

email = models.EmailField()

headshot = models.ImageField(upload_to='/tmp')

CREATE TABLE "books_author" (

"id" serial NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

"salutation" varchar(10) NOT NULL,

"first_name" varchar(30) NOT NULL,

"last_name" varchar(40) NOT NULL,

"email" varchar(75) NOT NULL, "headshot" varchar(100) NOT NULL );

basic data access
Basic Data Access

>>> from books.models import Publisher

>>> p1 = Publisher(name=‘X', address=Y',

... city='Boston', state_province='MA', country='U.S.A.',

... website='http://www.apress.com/')

>>> p1.save()

>>> publisher_list = Publisher.objects.all()

>>> publisher_list

  • Data access is lazy and accomplished as a set of Model methods (think extension methods in .NET).
  • Generates SQL injection safe statements.
advanced data access
Advanced Data Access

>>> Publisher.objects.filter(name="Apress Publishing")

>>> Publisher.objects.filter(country=“USA", state_province="CA")

>>> Publisher.objects.filter(name__contains="press")

>>> Publisher.objects.get(name="Penguin")

>>> Publisher.objects.order_by("name")

>>> Publisher.objects.filter(country="U.S.A.").order_by("-name")

>>> Publisher.objects.all()[0]

  • All queries are not executed until the query is ‘read’ by a list, count or slice operation meaning that all queries can be chained.
  • Each query object contains an internal cache to minimize database accesses.
  • Extension methods (‘name__contains’) exist for most database operations like case (in)sensitive matching, >, <, in, startswith, etc.
model design goals
Model Design Goals
  • Explicit is Better than Implicit
    • Fields shouldn’t assume certain behaviors based solely on the name of the field.
  • Include all Relevant Domain Logic
    • Models should encapsulate every aspect of an “object,” following Martin Fowler’s Active Record design pattern.
  • SQL Efficiency
    • Execute SQL statements as few times as possible, and it should optimize statements internally.
  • Terse, Powerful Syntax
    • The database API should allow rich, expressive statements in as little syntax as possible. It should not rely on importing other modules or helper objects.
  • Raw SQL When Needed
    • The database API should realize it’s a shortcut but not necessarily an end-all-be-all. The framework should make it easy to write custom SQL — entire statements, or just custom WHERE clauses as custom parameters to API calls.
administration site
Administration Site

Django’s focus on removing the boilerplate work of web development led to the creation of a full-featured, configurable administrative interface to any Django app.

form processing
Form Processing
  • Forms can be auto-generated just like models and can even be pulled directly from a model class.
  • Includes built in validation for fields like email and image.
  • Rendering includes screen reader hints like <label> tags and can be rendered in multiple ways to allow for custom CSS usage.

class ContactForm(forms.Form):

topic = forms.ChoiceField(choices=TOPIC_CHOICES)

message = forms.CharField()

sender = forms.EmailField(required=False)

TOPIC_CHOICES = ( ('general', 'General enquiry'), ('bug', 'Bug report'), ('suggestion', 'Suggestion'), )

<h1>Contact us</h1>

<form action="." method="POST">

<table> {{ form.as_table }} </table>

<ul> {{ form.as_ul }} </ul>

<p> {{ form.as_p }} </p>

<input type="submit" value="Submit />

</form>

generic views
Generic Views

publisher_info = { "queryset" : Publisher.objects.all(), }

urlpatterns = patterns('', (r'^publishers/$', list_detail.object_list, publisher_info) )

Because it’s such a common task, Django comes with a handful of built-in generic views that make generating list and detail views of objects incredibly easy.

{% block content %} <h2>Publishers</h2>

<ul> {% for publisher in object_list %}

<li>{{ publisher.name }}</li>

{% endfor %}

</ul>

{% endblock %}

middleware
Middleware
  • Session Framework
    • This session framework lets you store and retrieve arbitrary data on a per-site visitor basis using encrypted cookies.
  • Users & Authentication
    • Handles user accounts, groups, permissions, and cookie-based user sessions.
    • Access limits can be expressed in code, decorator methods or template language.
  • Caching
    • Implements several caching mechanisms for development and production.
  • CSRF Protection
    • Implements the random seeded form method for protecting from CRSF attacks.
  • Transaction
    • This middleware binds a database COMMIT or ROLLBACK to the request / response phase. If a view function runs successfully, a COMMIT is issued. If the view raises an exception, a ROLLBACK is issued.
owasp top 10
OWASP Top 10
  • Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
  • Injection Flaws
  • Malicious File Execution
  • Insecure Direct Object Reference
  • Cross Site Request Forgery
  • Information Leakage & Improper Error Handling
  • Broken Authentication & Session Management
  • Insecure Cryptographic Storage
  • Insecure Communications
  • Failure to Restrict URL Access
url mapping as a security measure
URL Mapping as a Security Measure
  • URL mappings are just regexsso they are your first line of defense.
  • \d{4}
    • Only allows combinations of numbers to be input, otherwise a 404 is issued.
    • Valid: 2008, 3456, 1924, 2345
    • Invalid: 23<script>alert(‘hi!’)</script>, -3454, 34, 1, 4h8g, #$#$$#ojif, etc.
    • Still have to logically validate, but structural validation is easy.
  • Helps prevent: Injection Flaws, XSS, CSRF, File Execution
  • urlpatterns = patterns('',
  • (r'^articles/(?P<year>\d{4})/(?P<month>\d{2})/$', views.month_archive),
  • (r'^foo/$', views.foobar_view, {'template_name': 'template1.html'}),
  • (r'^mydata/birthday/$', views.my_view, {'month': 'jan', 'day': '06'}),
  • (r'^mydata/(?P<month>\w{3})/(?P<day>\d\d)/$', views.my_view),
  • (r'^admin/', include('django.contrib.admin.urls')),
  • )
custom data typing
Custom Data Typing
  • Django adds custom fields that are not provided by SQL.
  • These fields provide validation for model and form data.
  • Users can define their own fields with custom validation.
  • unique_for_* constraints
  • Validator lists for arbitrary fields.
  • Enums are first class
  • CommaSeparatedIntegerField
  • DateField / DateTimeField
  • EmailField
  • FileField, FilePathField
  • ImageField
  • IpField
  • PhoneNumber
  • UrlField
  • UsStateField

GENDER_CHOICES = ( ('M', 'Male'), ('F', 'Female'), )

cross site scripting xss
Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
  • All variables output by the template engine are escaped.
  • Django provides a ‘safe’ filter to bypass the protection.

{{ name|safe}}

security sql injection
Security – SQL Injection
  • Django automatically escapes all special SQL parameters, according to the quoting conventions of the database server you’re using (e.g., PostgreSQL or MySQL).
  • Exception: The where argument to the extra() method. That parameter accepts raw SQL by design.
  • Exception: Queries done “by hand” using the lower-level database API.
malicious file execution
Malicious File Execution
  • Standard Django practice is to have a separate server for all static media files.
  • Prevents standard directory traversal attacks (PHP).
  • Provides ImageField for standard user image manipulation and validation.
  • Custom storage backends can be developed to have specific validation behavior or custom storage.
    • Eg. Amazon S3, etc.
insecure direct object reference
Insecure Direct Object Reference
  • Django defines a special field called ‘slug’.
    • In newspaper editing, a slug is a short name given to an article that is in production.
    • Examples: /blog/my-blog-entry, /home/this-is-a-slug
  • Slugs allow for SEO friendly URLs & limit the usage of passing of IDs as GET parameters.
  • Views can declare the user / roles allowed to call.
  • Permission to specific objects still needs to be checked by hand.
  • from django.contrib.auth.decorators import user_passes_test
  • @user_passes_test(lambda u: u.has_perm('polls.can_vote'))
  • def my_view(request):
  • # ...
cross site request forgery
Cross Site Request Forgery
  • Django provides included middleware to implement protection.
  • Seeds each form with a hash of the session ID plus a secret key.
  • Ensures that the same hash is passed back with each post.
  • Django style guidelines recommend that all GET posts are idempotent.
information leakage improper error handling
Information Leakage & Improper Error Handling
  • Django provides a DEBUG setting in the settings.py file. This prevents the framework from outputting any sensitive information.
  • The ExceptionMiddleware defines how the framework handles exceptions.
  • Custom ExceptionMiddleware can be created to handle exceptions.
session forging hijacking
Session Forging / Hijacking
  • Django’s session framework doesn’t allow sessions to be contained in the URL.
    • Unlike PHP, Java, etc.
  • The only cookie that the session framework uses is a single session ID; all the session data is stored in the database.
  • Session IDs are stored as hashes (instead of sequential numbers), which prevents a brute-force attack.
  • A user will always get a new session ID if she tries a nonexistent one, which prevents session fixation.
insecure cryptographic storage
Insecure Cryptographic Storage

New Google library to allow for easy encryption, Keyczar.

  • def _get_ssn(self):
  • enc_obj= Blowfish.new( settings.SECRET_KEY )
  • return u"%s" % enc_obj.decrypt( binascii.a2b_hex(self.social_security_number) ).rstrip()
  • def _set_ssn(self, ssn_value):
  • enc_obj= Blowfish.new( settings.SECRET_KEY )
  • repeat = 8 - (len( ssn_value ) % 8) ssn_value = ssn_value + " " * repeat self.social_security_number = binascii.b2a_hex(enc_obj.encrypt( ssn_value ))
  • ssn= property(_get_ssn, _set_ssn)

Simple to create transparent encrypted storage for model fields.

failure to restrict url access
Failure to Restrict URL Access
  • Insecure Communications
  • Links not specifically called out in the Urlconf don’t exist.
  • Views can be tagged with roles & permissions.
  • Static files loaded via forced browsing don’t exist in Django.
  • The framework has little to do with insecure communications.
  • Django uses the secure cookie protocol specified by Professor Alex X. Liu of Michigan State University.
  • Django authentication can be marked to use a secure cookie to force SSL.
deployment scaling
Deployment & Scaling
  • Standard LAMP stack.
  • Choice of mod_python, mod_wsgi and fast-cgi for request forwarding.
  • Standard Django deployment requires a separate static media server.
  • Scaling
    • Offload database.
    • Increase application servers.
    • Increate media servers.
    • Load balance.
  • Memcached
deployment scaling1
Deployment & Scaling

Over 10 million / day served.