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Chapter 31 1985 to Present. Decline of Communism. Brezhnev Era : Re-Stalinization, collective dictatorship and coercion. U.S.S.R. seemed stable: Rising standard of living Great Russians : nationalistic Communist party leaders Censorship by govt. But there were changes happening

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decline of communism
Decline of Communism
  • Brezhnev Era: Re-Stalinization, collective dictatorship and coercion.
  • U.S.S.R. seemed stable:
    • Rising standard of living
    • Great Russians: nationalistic Communist party leaders
    • Censorship by govt.
  • But there were changes happening
    • Growing urban pop. were educated and skilled
    • Educated pop. sought intellectual freedom
    • Soviet public opinion grew
poland
Poland
  • Aug 1980: 16,000 workers occupied Lenin Shipyard.
  • Demanded free speech, free trade unions, freedom of political prisoners, and econ reform.
    • Gdansk Agreement
  • Lech Walesa organized Solidarity
    • Free and democratic trade union
    • 1981 9.5 million members
  • Solidarity never tried to take over govt.
  • Solidarity weakens:
    • Rumors of bad leadership & economic problems led to decline
    • Dec. 1981 Communist leaders arrested Solidarity leaders
  • Solidarity survived: Poles continued to believe they were free
mikhail gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
  • 1985 Gorbachev became leader of Soviet Union
  • Reforms:
    • Anti-alcoholism and anti-corruption
    • Perestroika: restructuring of economy (failed)
    • Glasnost: openness of govt., relaxed censorship and conformity
    • Democratization: minor political elections
    • Détente: stop arms race, refused validity of Brezhnev Doctrine
  • These reforms led to Soviet satellites wanting independence
    • Gorbachev didn’t repress these wants so demands grew
collapse of communism revolutions of 1989
Collapse of CommunismRevolutions of 1989
  • Poland: Solidarity legalized in 1989, first noncommunist leader in Aug.
    • Shock therapy: release of control over economy. Designed to move quickly into private ownership.
  • Hungary opened border with Austria, East Germans fled to WG through Hungary.
  • Nov. 1989 Berlin Wall falls: Germany re-united.
  • Dec. 1989 Velvet Revolution: non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia.
  • Romania: only country to have bloody revolution
communism falls in u s s r
Communism Falls in U.S.S.R
  • Gorbachev’s new constitution abolished Communist monopoly of power.
  • Gorbachev’s lack of popularity led the way for Boris Yeltsin.
  • Yeltsin: reformed communist, embraced democratic ideals. Elected chairman of Russian Federation May 1990.
  • Gorbachev tried to save S.U. but failed.
communism falls cont
Communism Falls cont.
  • July 1990 hard-line communists disagreed w/ Gorbachev, kidnapped him & tried to take over the S.U.
  • People were outraged. Russian army rescued Gorbachev.
  • December 25, 1991 Russia declared independent – No more Soviet Union!
end of the cold war
End of the Cold War
  • E. Germany’s third way: socialism w/ independence from W. Germany - Didn’t work
  • ½ of E. German pop. fled
  • Chancellor Kohl’s 10 point plan and economic recovery.
  • Alliance for Germany: coalition against keeping E. Germany separate. E Germany eventually absorbed into W Germany.
  • Nov. 1990 Paris Accord: treaty that ended Cold War
    • Scaling down of armed forces
    • All existing boarders in Europe legal
a new world order
A New World Order
  • European nations accepted neoliberal, free-market capitalist economy.
    • Scaled back welfare programs
    • Poland and Hungary moved to privatize industry
  • Globalization: freer global economy.
    • Multinational corporations
    • International financial organizations
    • Low inflation and limited govt. deficits
    • Computer & electronic revolution
  • Nationalism and ethnic conflicts began anew
  • European Union (1993): formally EEC, shunned nations that promoted ethnic hatred ( i.e. Serbia)
gulf war
Gulf War
  • United States emerged as the greatest world power after Cold War.
  • Saddam Hussein, Iraq’s leader, invaded Kuwait Aug 1990.
  • U.N. imposed naval blockade
  • 500,000 American troops deployed on boarder of Kuwait waiting for Hussein to withdraw.
  • U.N. sanctioned invasion of Iraq. U.S. stopped short of ousting Hussein.
  • Implications: New world order included U.S. working w/ UN to maintain a stable balance of power.
the new russia
The New Russia
  • Pres. Yeltsin tries “shock therapy”
    • Freed prices of 90% of Russian goods
    • Rapid privatization of industry
    • Citizens received 10,000 rubles to invest in stock
  • Believed brief period of hardship, then economic prosperity – didn’t happen.
  • Production fell and inflation grew
  • Reasons:
    • Many factories closed – state no longer funded them
    • Production concentrated in a couple of factories – state monopolies became private monopolies.
    • To maximize returns, owners cut production to raise prices.
    • Govt. forced to give subsidies
    • Criminal activities by businesses – reduce competition
new russia cont
New Russia cont.
  • Oligarchs: handful of Russians who controlled businesses. Managers, former officials, financers.
  • Majority of pop. fell into poverty.
    • Devalued pensions
    • Selling personal belongings
    • Life expectancy fell
new russia cont1
New Russia cont.
  • Chechnya: declared independence in 1991
    • Civil war and conflicts with Russia lasted until 1996
    • Many human rights violations on both sides
    • Estimated 3,829 Russian troops dead, 100,000 Chechen dead
  • Yeltsin began to lose support: became erratic and uncompromising.
  • Parliament revolted against Yeltsin and on Oct.4, 1993 military forces were sent to stamp out the mutiny.
  • Yeltsin banned political opposition, closed several newspapers, instituted curfew, etc.
  • Yeltsin consolidated power and failed to create a true representative govt.
managed democracy
Managed Democracy
  • Vladimir Putin: First elected president (chosen by Yeltsin) in 2000.
  • Re-established semi-authoritarian rule, but kept free markets.
  • Economy boomed, middle class grew.
  • Nationalism grew under Putin
  • The Arrest of Mikhail Khodorkovsky
    • Owner of Yukos Oil Co. (big deal)
    • Financer for parties against Putin & possible political opponent.
    • Arrested for fraud, but motives were political
    • In reaction, market plunged (fell 10%)
the new e europe
The New E. Europe
  • Eastern European countries faired far better than Russia in transitioning to democracy and capitalism.
  • Experience with market reforms prior to 1989.
  • Govt. policy was flexible.
  • Czechoslovakia peacefully resolved ethnic tensions by creating the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993.
  • 1997 Poland, Czech Republic, and Hungary were accepted into NATO.
tragedy in yugoslavia
Tragedy in Yugoslavia
  • Yugoslavia had been a tolerant and successful multiethnic nation up until 1989.
    • Over 10 major ethnic groups
  • After Josip Tito’s death in 1980, civil war between ethnic groups began.
    • Serbia, led by Milosevic, wanted to unite all Serbs into a “greater Serbia” (1989): took over Kosovo.
    • Slovenia & Croatia declared independence (June 1991)
    • Serbia tried to take land from Slovenia & Croatia, only got a piece of Croatia.
    • Bosnia-Herzegovina gained independence in 1992: Serbs refused to live under Muslim govt.
tragedy cont
Tragedy cont.
  • Brutality of civil war prompted NATO intervention.
  • July 1995: Bosnian Serbs took over Srebrenica and killed thousands.
  • President Clinton and NATO negotiated agreement that gave Serbia and Croatia parts of Bosnia.
  • Kosovo, still repressed by Serbia, got nothing from the agreement.
    • Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) formed in early 1998
  • Serbia attacked KLA, killing & uprooting thousands
  • Jan. 1999, Western powers threatened Milosevic with bombing if he didn’t stop. He refused.
  • NATO started bombing. Milosevic withdrew.
  • 2001 new pro-Western govt. handed Milosevic over to the war crimes tribunal.
western european identity
Western European Identity
  • Single European Act 1968: Revision of Treaty of Rome
  • 1991 Maastricht treaty:
    • Set financial criteria for joining Common Market (EU in 1993)
    • Single currency for countries in EU by 1999.
  • Support for Maastricht treaty: step toward European political unity, helps Europe’s economic problems, reduce high unemployment
  • Opposition: Rules & bureaucracy, undermining national & local practices, fear of yielding sovereignty, ordinary people would pay price.
success of european unity
Success of European Unity
  • Jan. 1, 2002 Euro was introduced to Europe
  • May 1, 2004 EU added Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, and many other E. European countries.
  • June 2004 EU constitution agreed upon.
  • Today the EU consists of 27 countries.
21 st century population decline
21st Century population decline
  • In the beginning of the 21st century population was on the decline.
    • In 2000, women in Europe were having 1.6 children on average.
  • Causes:
    • High unemployment of 1980’s & 90’s: no money to start family
    • Women’s movement: rejection of motherhood, striving for careers
  • Consequences:
    • Smaller, younger pop. would have to support larger, older pop.
    • Socialist countries with massive welfare programs would suffer most (social security, pensions, medical care)
immigration
Immigration
  • Immigrant workers from before 1970’s eventually brought families with them.
  • Refugees from E. Europe (Yugoslavia), Middle East, and Africa.
  • Illegal immigration grew from 50,000 people in 1993 to 500,000 in 2003.
    • Economic opportunities attracted many people to European Union countries.
    • Human trafficking became way for crime orgs to get money.
terrorism in 21 st century
Terrorism in 21st Century
  • Civil war and terrorism in the 20st century often went together.
    • Examples: Ireland, Spain, Israel, Yemen, and much of the Middle East.
  • On the surface recent attacks have been blamed on Islamic extremists, however this is just one aspect.
  • Most recent terrorist attacks can be attributed to civil unrest, war, and political conflicts.
    • Soviet Union had invaded Afghanistan in 1979.
    • Example: many Arab govts were viewed as un-Islamic and corrupt.
    • Some of these govts were pro-West in view.
    • These govts were not supportive of Islamic extremes & exiled many extremists.
9 11 and the war on terror
9/11 and the War on Terror
  • September 11, 2001
    • al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger planes.
    • 2 hit World Trade Center
    • 1 hit Pentagon
    • 1 crashed into Pennsylvania field, believed to be headed for White House.
  • United States, led by George W. Bush, launched massive campaign to destroy al-Qaeda and Taliban.
  • Western Europe, Russia, Pakistan, and Northern Alliance Afghanistan helped.
war on terror cont
War on Terror cont.
  • Mid-November Taliban collapsed – New Afghan leadership needed to be worked out.
    • UN worked out plans for new govt
    • U.S. continued to look for bin Laden
  • 2002 aid workers from around the world helped put Afghanistan back together.
war in iraq
War in Iraq
  • Once elected into office, President W. Bush began planning on how to take out Saddam Hussein.
  • Admin believed if the was a new, pro-U.S. govtwould transform Middle East.
  • Americans also feared renewed terrorism and WMDs.
    • Saddam had promised to dismantle mass destruction weapons after Gulf War.
  • Late 2002: to avoid war, Iraq accepted UN weapon inspectors and vowed they had destroyed WMDs.
    • Bush administration was reluctant to agree.
  • U.S. & Britain said they hid the WMDs and moved troops to Middle East.
  • France, Germany, Russia, China all wanted to continue searching, but not attack.
war in iraq cont
War in Iraq cont.
  • March 2003 United States and Great Britain invaded Iraq.
  • Mistakes led to chaos, not peace.
    • Troops allowed looting and bandits.
    • Disbanding Iraqi army led to alienation, unemployment, no security
    • Insurgents were able to collect guns & explosives.
  • U.S. and Britain found no WMDs.
  • 2004 Pro-West Iraqi govt set up.
  • War in Iraq had split the nations of the world in two.
    • Trust and legitimacy of nations involved was in question.