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The major muscle groups Axial muscles- position head and spinal column; move rib cage about 60 of muscles Appendicula - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The major muscle groups Axial muscles- position head and spinal column; move rib cage (about 60% of muscles) Appendicular muscles stabilize or move the bones of the appendicular skeleton. Superifical muscles (anterior view). Muscle names are descriptive

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The major muscle groups

Axial muscles- position head and spinal column;

move rib cage (about 60% of muscles)

Appendicular muscles stabilize or move the bones

of the appendicular skeleton



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Muscle names are descriptive

Location (e.g., temporalis attaches to temporal

bone in skull)

Action (flexor causes muscle flexion)

Shape (deltoid is shaped by the Greek letter

delta)


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Groups of axial muscles

Head and neck- facial expressions, chewing,

swallowing

Muscles of the spine- flexors and extensors

of the spinal column

Muscles of the trunk- walls of the thoracic and

abdominopelvic cavities; floor of the

pelvic cavity


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Originate on skull

Insert into the dermis


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Largest group of muscles associated with

mouth

Orbicularis oris- opening

Buccinator- compresses cheeks

Masseter and temporalis- chewing

Other, smaller groups control movements of eyes,

scalp, ears, movements of jaw, etc.


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Muscles of spine

Covered by superficial muscles

erector spinae- extensors

quadratus lumborum- flexors

Muscles of trunk- intercostals, obliques,

transversus abdominalis, diaphragm,

rectus abdominalis



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Muscles associated with pelvic floor

Broad sheet of support muscles (levator ani)

Muscles associated with urination and

defecation


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Appendicular muscles

shoulders and upper limbs

pelvic girdle and lower limbs

Trapezius; movements of scapula, clavicle,

extension of head and neck

Flexors, rotators, abductors (raise) adductor

(lower) of arm

Extensors of wrist

Flexors and extensors of fingers


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Muscles of hip and lower limb

Movement of the thigh

flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors

Movement of the leg

flexors, extensors

Movement of ankles and feet

dorsiflexor, eversion, plantar flexion


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Effects of aging on the muscular system

skeletal muscle fibers become smaller

in diameter

muscles become smaller and less elastic

tolerance for exercise decreases

ability to recover from injury decreases

You can’t start exercising too early!


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Disorders of the muscular system (often due

to nervous disorders)

Trauma (tears, bruises, damage to connective

tissue). Pain may arise from damage to

skeleton

Infection, inflammation

Weakness, atrophy (disease, infection)

Tremors, paralysis (nervous system)


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