Macromolecular Chemistry. Berzelius Staudinger Carothers. ³. =. T. 90. A. ³. ³. =. 89. T. 80. B. ³. ³. =. 79. T. 70. C. ³. ³. =. 69. T. 60. D. ³. ³. =. 59. T. 50. F. (. ). -. é. ù. x. x. =. +. T. x. 10.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Berzelius Staudinger Carothers
Cellulose is the most widely distributed plant skeletal polysaccharide. It constitutes over half of the cell wall material of wood. Cotton is almost pure cellulose.
Cellulose is a linear polysaccharide of D-glucose units joined by b-1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Bug “do do”
Lots of bug “do do”
natural polymer secreted by a southeast Asian lac beetle
Excellent quality of moulding detail leads to:
Early 78 rpm records
25% "shellac“, cotton filler, powdered slate, and a small amount of wax
C.H. Meyer and/or L.H. Baekeland Discovered Novolac ca. 1900 ???
Baekeland’s Phenol-formaldehyde resins, which he called Bakelite.
Coined the term "polymer"
in 1833 to describe organic compounds that share identical empirical formulas but differ in overall molecular weight …a kind of “isomer”.. acetylene cyclobutadiene, benzene and styrene, for example.
This concept lasted until Carothers.
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Graham thought that cellulose and other colloids consisted of large numbers of structurally simple molecules held together by "association." ….also called “partial valency” ??!!
The statement of a German chemist after a debate with Staudinger in 1926: ‘We are shocked like zoologists would be if they were told somewhere in Africa an elephant was found who was 1600 feet long and 300 feet high’. Staudinger received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1953.
r g h = P
So…. P V / n R T = 1 or P = (n/V) R T
n / V = m (Molar concentration)
So…. P = m R T this is the van’t Hoff Relationship
For molal m = n / V = c / M
Where M = mass of solute per unit volume of solvent
So…. P / c = R T / M
and we can cheat…. P / c = R T /M + Bc + Cc2 + …..
P / c
Slope = B
Crystalline and semi crystalline
proportion of crystalline / amorphous strong influence on properties
PE carrier bag - amorphous, toughened pipe 95% crystalline