wel-come. Presented by Kiran Balasaheb Alhat 2) Sambhaji Govind Suryawanshi. G.E.SOCITYS. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION SANGAMNER A PROJECT OF I.C.T. STUDY OF DROUGHT PRONE AREA 2010-2011. DROUTGH INTRODUCTION
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Presented by • Kiran Balasaheb Alhat • 2) Sambhaji Govind Suryawanshi
G.E.SOCITYS COLLEGE OF EDUCATION SANGAMNER A PROJECT OF I.C.T. STUDY OF DROUGHT PRONE AREA 2010-2011
DROUTGH • INTRODUCTION • Drought is a climatic anomaly, characterized by deficient supply of moisture resulting either from sub-normal rainfall, erratic rainfall distribution, higher water • HISTORICAL DROUGHT EVENTS • The drought prone areas in the country classified on annual rainfall departures fall. • Either in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions where droughts occur frequently.
DROUGHT A drought is a long period of dry weather, when no rain falls for weeks, months or even years. Many parts of the world expect drought every year. These are places which have dry season and a wet season. People plan for the drought by storing water and by growing crops that can withstand the dry weather.
Andhra Pradesh :- Anantapur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Hyderabad, Kurnool, Mehaboobnagar, Nalgonda, Prakasam Bihar:- Munger, Nawadah, Palamau, Rphtas, Bhojpur, Gujarat:- Ahmedabad, Amrely,Banaskanta, Bhavanagar, Bharuch,Jamnagar, Kheda, Kutch, Meshana, Panchmahal, Rajkot,Surendranagar Haryana:- Bhiwani, Gurgao, Mahendragarh, Rohtak Jammu &Kashmir :-Doda, Udhamp
Karnataka:- Bangalore, Belgaum, Bellary, Bijapur, Chitradurga,Chickmangalur, Dharwad, Gulbarga, Hassan, Kolar,Mandya, Mysore, Raichur, Tumkur MadhyaPradesh:-Betul, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Jhabuva, Khandak,Khargaon, Shahdol, Shahjapur, Sidhi, Ujjain Maharashtra:- Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, Beed, Nanded, Nashik,Osmanabad, Pune, Parbhani, Sangli, Satara, Sholapur Orissa:- Phulbani, Kalakhandi, Bolangir, Kendrapada,
Types of drought · Meteorological drought: related to rainfall amounts · Hydrological drought: determined by water levels in reservoirs · Agricultural drought: related to the availability of water for crops
Meteorological Drought:- • Meteorological drought is generally defined by comparing the rainfall in a particular place and at a particular time with the average rainfall for that place. The definition is, therefore, specific to a particular location. Meteorological drought leads to a depletion of soil moisture and this almost always has an impact on crop production. • When we define drought this way, we only consider the reduction in rainfall amounts and don't take into account the
effects of the lack of water on water resevoirs, human needs or on agriculture. • Hydrological Drought • Hydrological drought is associated with the effect of low rainfall on water levels in rivers, reservoirs, lakes and aquifers. Hydrological droughts usually are noticed some time after meteorological droughts. First precipitation decreases and, some time after that, water levels in rivers and lakes drops.
Hydrological drought affects uses which depend on the water levels. Changes in water levels affect ecosystems, hydroelectrical power production and recreational, industrial and urban water use.
Agricultural drought. • Agricultural drought occurs when there is not enough water available for a particular crop to grow at a particular time. This drought doesn’t depend only in the amount of rainfall, but also on the correct use of that water. Imagine a period of low rainfall where water is used • Under these circumstances, the effect of the drought becomes more pronounced than it was before. • Agricultural drought is typically seen after meteorological drought (when rainfall
decreases) but before a hydrological drought (when the water level in rivers, lakes and reservoirs decreases).
Impacts of Drought • The impacts of drought can be categorized as economic, environmental, or social. • Economic Impacts • Environmental Impacts • Social Impacts
Economic Impacts • Costs and losses to agricultural producers • 1)annual and perennial crop losses • 2)Damage to crop quality • 3)Income loss for farmers due to reduced crop yields • Reduced productivity of cropland (wind erosion, long- term loss of organic matter, etc.) • 4)Insect infestation • 5)Plant disease • Costs and losses to livestock producers • 1)Reduced productivity of rangeland • 2)Reduced milk production • 3)Forced reduction of foundation stock • 4)Closure/limitation of public lands to grazing • 5)High cost/unavailability of water for livestock
Loss from timber production • 1)Wildland fires • 2)Tree disease • 3)Insect infestation • 4)Impaired productivity of forest land • 5)Direct loss of trees, especially young ones
General economic effects • Decreased land prices • Loss to industries directly dependent on agricultural production (e.g., machinery and fertilizer manufacturers, food processors, dairies, etc.) • Unemployment from drought-related declines in production • Strain on financial institutions (foreclosures, more credit risk, capital shortfalls) • Revenue losses to federal, state, and local governments (from reduced tax base) • Reduction of economic development • Fewer agricultural producers (due to bankruptcies, new occupations) • Rural population loss
Environmental Impacts • Damage to animal species • Reduction and degradation of fish and wildlife habitat • Lack of feed and drinking water • Greater mortality due to increased contact with agricultural producers, as animals seek food from farms and producers are less tolerant of the intrusion • Hydrological effects • Lower water levels in reservoirs, lakes, and ponds • Reduced flow from springs • Reduced streamflow • Loss of wetlands • Estuarine impacts (e.g., changes in salinity levels)
Damage to plant communities • Loss of biodiversity • Loss of trees from urban landscapes, shelterbelts, wooded conservation areas • Increased number and severity of firesWind and water erosion of soils, reduced soil qualityAir quality effects (e.g., dust, pollutants)Visual and landscape quality (e.g., dust, vegetative cover, etc.)
Social Impacts • Health • Mental and physical stress (e.g., anxiety, depression, loss of security, domestic violence) • Health-related low-flow problems (e.g., cross-connection contamination, diminished sewage flows, increased pollutant concentrations, reduced fire fighting capability, etc.) • Reductions in nutrition (e.g., high-cost food limitations, stress-related dietary deficiencies)
Disruption of cultural belief systems (e.g., religious and scientific views of natural hazards)Increased data/information needs, coordination of dissemination activitiesRecognition of institutional Reevaluation of social values (e.g., priorities, needs, rights)Public dissatisfaction with government drought responsePerceptions of inequity in relief, possibly related to socioeconomic status, ethnicity, age, gender, seniorityLoss of cultural sitesrestraints on water use
Drought in India Drought in India has resulted in tens of millions of deaths over the course of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Indianagriculture is heavily dependent on the climate of India: a favorable southwest summer monsoon is critical in securing water for irrigating Indian crops. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons result in water shortages, resulting in below-average crop yields. This is particularly true of major drought-prone regions such as southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.