Metadata Lecture 15 Info 660 Daniel Stuhlman
Metadata Definition Structured data about data. The concept of metadata, when applied in the context of current libraries, digital or traditional, typically refers to information that provides 1> A (usually brief) characterization of the individual information objects in the collections of a library 2> Stored principally as the contents of library catalogs in TL's (traditional libraries); 3> Used principally in aiding users to access information objects of interest. Adapted from: Smith, Terence R. "The Meta-Information Environment of Digital Libraries." D-Lib Magazine, July/August 1996.
What Does Metadata Do? Creates a resource description for any kind Cataloging is a process to create metadata. Metadata facilitates discovery. Identifies resources Distinguishes among similar and variant resources Brings similar resources together [i.e., authors, subjects, locations] Gives location information or is a finding aid Allows for multiple systems to exchange data with a minimal loss of content
Four Types of Metadata 1. Descriptive – Attributes that make the item being described unique 2. Structural – Establishes the structure and relationships of a set of digital objects 3. Administrative – Manages and administers information resources. 4. Preservation – The conservation and preservation of materials and information for the preservation management of items.
Examples of Standards 1. Dublin Core 2. Encoded Archival Description (EAD) 3. MARC 4. Open Archives Initiative (OAI) 5. Text-Encoding Initiative (TEI) 6. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) 7. eXtensible Markup Language (XML) 8. Learning Object Metadata Standard (LOMS)
Dublin Core Goal -- to be an easy to use and create descriptive metadata for web resources. Principles: All elements are optional, repeatable, can be displayed in any order, can be expanded. An international standard. Three levels of Dublin Core: unqualified, qualified, and community
Encoded Archival Description (EAD) Used by archivists, museum curators, manuscript repositories and libraries. Goal: electronic equivalent to a finding aid. SGML/XML based document type definition (DTD) used to crate, store, and distribute digital descriptions, i.e. finding aids.
MARC21 Standard for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine-readable form http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ecbdhome.html
Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Began as a way to provide free access to articles by having authors deposit their preprints and articles into accessible databases. OAI has gone beyond the preprint and e-print community to get involved with issues of interoperability, automatic metadata harvesting, and the development of metadata repositories.
Text-Encoding Initiative (TEI) • An international research effort trying to produce a community-based standard for encoding and interchanging electronic texts. • An SGML DTD used for marking up humanities and literary texts.
Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) Purpose -- to provide a unique label which will be a concise way of referring to a particular web resource. Include: uniform resource locators (URLs), uniform resource names (URNs), uniform resource characteristics (URCs), and to some extent digital object identifiers (DOIs).
eXtensible Markup Language (XML) An abbreviated version of SGML (standard graphic markup language) and a more content-oriented language than HTML. Helps define document types. Well suited to delivery and interoperability over the Web as compared to SGML.
Learning Object Metadata Standard (LOMS) Use of Metadata to enrich the catalog Table of contents Book cover images Reader reviews of the item – both read and create these reviews Access to ordering and delivery service