Diversity of Living Things – The Six Kingdoms
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Diversity of Living Things – The Six Kingdoms (Pages 108-113). Archaebacteria 2. Eubacteria 3. Fungi 4. Protists 5. Plants 6. Animals. Archaebacteria 1. Single celled 2. Lack nuclei 3. Divide in half Found in harsh e nvironments Methanogens, Extreme Thermophiles. Eubacteria

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Diversity of Living Things – The Six Kingdoms

(Pages 108-113)

Archaebacteria

2. Eubacteria

3. Fungi

4. Protists

5. Plants

6. Animals


Archaebacteria

1. Single celled

2. Lack nuclei

3. Divide in half

  • Found in harsh environments

    Methanogens, Extreme Thermophiles

Eubacteria

1. Single celled

2. Lack nuclei

3. Divide in half

  • Very common

    Bacteria (soils), Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)


Bioluminescent Bacteria

Vibrio

  • Free living bacteria

  • Fresh Water and Salt Water

  • Light organs – have special conditions to help the bacteria grow

  • Quorum sensing – determines when the bacterial colony will produce the proteins that cause bioluminescence

  • Bioluminescence is caused by a group of genes called the lux operon


Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria

Rhizobium

  • Soil bacterium

  • Bacteria are the only organisms that can take atmospheric nitrogen and turn it into ammonia, which plants can use

  • Live in symbiotic relationship with plants in nodules on the roots

  • Legumes – clovers, soybeans, kudzu, alfalfa

  • Once plants are harvested, nitrogen is released into the soil making it available to other plants


Fungi

  • Absorb food through their body surface

    2. Have cell walls

    3. Most live on land

    Yeast, mushrooms, mold, mildew

Protists

1.Most single celled

2. Have nuclei

  • Most live in water

    Paramecia, diatoms, amoebas, Euglena


  • Fungi are decomposers

  • Fungi secrete powerful enzymes to digest their food (what they are decomposing)

  • The resulting “waste” products are sometimes desirable (tasty) to us humans

    • Penicillim

    • Aspergillus


Protists

Paramecium

Small crustaceans, daphnia

Desmids

Algae – round and filamentous

Volvox

Diatoms


Plants

1. Many cells

2. Make their own food by photosynthesis

3. Cell walls

Ferns, mosses, trees, herbs, grass

Animals

1. Many cells

2. No cell walls

3. Ingest their food

  • Live on land and in water

    Corals, sponges, worms, insects, fish, reptiles, birds, mammals


Plants autotrophs
PlantsAutotrophs

Angiosperms

  • Flowering plants

  • Largest group of plants

  • Seeds enclosed in ovary

  • Flowers

Gymnosperms

  • Conifers, Ginkgos

  • “naked seeds”

  • Seeds develop on scales or cones


Grasses
Grasses

  • Prairies, savannas, shrub lands

  • Grasses, shrubs

  • Substantial, deep root system

  • Fertile soil


Animals heterotrophs
AnimalsHeterotrophs

Primary consumers

  • Herbivores

  • Prey animals

  • Very numerous

  • Insects, rodents, deer, rabbits

Secondary, Tertiary, etc. Consumers

  • Omnivores

  • Carnivores

  • Not as numerous

  • Opossum, bear

  • Wolf, mountain lion


Common Name

Size

Year round resident or migrant?

Food


Ecosystem a community of organisms
EcosystemA community of organisms

Biotic

Living and once living parts of an ecosystem

  • Plants- living and dead

  • Animals – living and dead

Abiotic

Nonliving parts of an ecosystem

  • Air

  • Water

  • Rocks and sand

  • Light

  • Temperature


Biotic organization
BioticOrganization

  • Biosphere

    • Earth

  • Ecosystem

    • Both biotic and abiotic factors

  • Community

    • Group of various species that live in an ecosystem

    • Only biotic factors

  • Population

    • All the members of one species

  • Organism

    • An individual living thing


CompetitionA relationship between two species in which both species attempt to uses the same limited resource

Biotic Causes

Invasive species

Abiotic Causes

Natural disasters

Man made disasters



Energy flow
Energy Flow

Food Chain

Food Web


Invasive species a non native species whose introduction causes damage to the local ecosystem
Invasive SpeciesA non-native species whose introduction causes damage to the local ecosystem

  • Non-native – a species that is introduced to an ecosystem

  • Examples:

    • Black Rat – first invasive species originally from Asia, started to spread around 1AD with the increase of shipping

    • Kudzu – brought to the US from Japan in 1876 for the Philadelphia Centennial Celebration

    • Burmese python – released pets beginning to inhabit the Florida everglades


Chemicals and pollution
Chemicals and Pollution

  • DDT – insecticide used to control malaria, caused eggshell thinning in birds of prey

  • Oil Spills – oil effects all organisms it touches causing widespread illness and death

  • Air pollution – burning of fossil fuels causing a build up of CO2 in atmosphere

  • Acid Rain – when rain drops pick up sulfur dioxide from energy plants burning coal


Habitat destruction and over harvesting
Habitat Destruction and Over Harvesting

  • Urbanization – loss of food, cover and sometimes predators

  • Agriculture – loss of woodlands and wetlands, replaced with less diverse crop fields, more herbicides and pesticides

  • Over fishing – decreased fish stock for commercial fisherman


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