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Expenditure weights. Silke Stapel Head of PPP section Eurostat. Overview. ICP 2004 expenditure questionnaire Handling of the software Sources for final consumption expenditure by households. Main “rule” 1 to be remembered. National Accounts is an art, not a science (David Roberts).

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expenditure weights

Expenditure weights

Silke Stapel

Head of PPP section

Eurostat

overview
Overview
  • ICP 2004 expenditure questionnaire
  • Handling of the software
  • Sources for final consumption expenditure by households
main rule 1 to be remembered
Main “rule” 1 to be remembered

National Accounts is an art, not a science

(David Roberts)

main rule 2 to be remembered
Main “rule” 2 to be remembered

We need a weight for each basic heading.

main rules to be remembered
Main rules to be remembered

What does this mean?

  • brave estimates maybe necessary to establish weights for each basic heading
  • heroic assumptions may have to be made
  • comparison, comparison, comparison
  • cross checking, cross checking, cross checking
  • believe in common sense
icp 2004 expenditure questionnaire
ICP 2004 expenditure questionnaire
  • Structure of the questionnaires (1)
    • follows the ICP expenditure classification
    • Maximum version as used by Eurostat/ OECD
    • Minimum version for ICP
    • regions may decide on intermediate levels
    • regions may split certain basic headings
icp 2004 expenditure questionnaire1
ICP 2004 expenditure questionnaire
  • Structure of the questionnaires(2)
  • 222/ 158 Basic Headings (level 6 of the software)
  • 152/ 126 Classes (level 5 of the software)
  • 71/ 61 Groups (level 4 of the software)
  • 31/ 26 Categories (level 3 of the software)
  • 7/ 7 Main Aggregates (level 2 of the software)
  • 1/ 1 GDP (level 1 of the software)
handling of the software
Handling of the software

Every number has to be entered only once.

handling of the software1
Handling of the software
  • weights at Basic Headings’ level to be entered
  • all subsequent aggregations are calculated
  • if weights only exist at aggregated level, formula can be overwritten by respective number
  • manually entered aggregated numbers are copied to all levels they belong to and are used for all subsequent aggregations
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh reminder 1
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Reminder 1
  • we want to compare price levels and volumes
  • not only structure of GDP (weights), but also level of GDP matters
  • in parallel to price collection GDP must be improved, particularly exhaustiveness
  • consistency between prices collected and prices underlying GDP is important
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh reminder 2
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Reminder 2
  • always cross-check different sources
  • simple comparison, common sense, what do you believe more?
  • set up simple use and supply tables (SUT) or input output tables (IOT)
  • use product balances and commodity flow
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh reminder 3
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Reminder 3

National Accounts is not the police

  • we do not care if something is legal or illegal
  • all economic activity and all expenditure should be covered in exhaustive accounts
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh supporting na material from eurostat
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Supporting NA material from Eurostat
  • Exhaustiveness project guidelines and templates
  • Guidelines and analytical tables for private household consumption estimates
  • NA questionnaire on income in kind, own account production and tips
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh need for co operation 1
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Need for co-operation (1)
  • Coverage and structure of GDP can only be improved if there is good co-operation between:
  • Statistical offices
  • Ministry of Finance/ Economy/ Planning
  • Tax offices (VAT, income taxes)
  • Police and customs
  • professional and consumers organisations
  • Charities
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh need for co operation 2
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Need for co-operation (2)
  • RC should recommend countries’ NSI to invite these other bodies and explain them objectives and scope of the exercise
  • win understanding and support
  • get access to sources you did not know they exist or which were confidential
  • RC may try to help NSI with particular co-operation problems
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh timing of weights exercise
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Timing of weights exercise
  • RC provide countries with the expenditure weights questionnaire and NA questionnaires after this workshop
  • Countries complete questionnaires with the most recent information available by June 2003
  • RC analyse responses and identify countries in need for technical assistance by September 2003
  • discussion at regional workshops
  • RC/ global office organise technical assistance from January 2004
  • acceptable weights available by mid-2005
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh typical sources expenditure point of view
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Typical sources: expenditure point of view
  • household budget/ expenditure surveys (HBS)
  • typical problems:
  • undercoverage of certain expenditure
  • undercoverage of poor and very rich households
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh typical sources production point of view
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Typical sources: production point of view
  • Retail trade statistics (RT)
  • Production statistics (industry, agriculture)
  • VAT or sales tax statistics
  • Sales by utility companies and state monopolies
  • Import and export statistics
  • typical problems:
  • undercoverage of small units, thresholds
  • tax aviation, “double” bookkeeping, underground economy
  • smuggling
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh typical sources others
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Typical sources: others
  • Nutrition surveys/ health statistics
  • national food balances
  • FAO food balances’ database
  • Motor vehicle registration
  • statistics by professional organisations
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh food and non alcoholic beverages
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Food and non-alcoholic beverages
  • less problematic, but watch:
    • own account production
    • charities
  • sources:
    • HBS
    • RT, VAT,
    • production statistics, imports, exports
    • food balances, nutrition surveys
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh alcoholic beverages and tobacco
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Alcoholic beverages and tobacco
  • very problematic:
    • own account production
    • HBS understates considerably
    • production statistics and RT underreport
    • foreign trade statistics underreport (smuggling)
  • additional sources:
    • Ministry of health (smoking and drinking habits)
    • capture rates of customs/ police
    • mirror foreign trade statistics
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh narcotics
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Narcotics
  • Politically very problematic, but if important production/ expenditure exists, estimate should be made
  • additional sources:
    • Ministry of health
    • capture rates of customs/ police
    • assistance organisations for drug addicts
      • number of consumers of drugs by type of drug
      • per head consumption
      • street prices
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh clothing and footwear
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Clothing and footwear
  • less problematic, but watch:
    • own account production
    • charities
  • sources:
    • HBS
    • RT, VAT,
    • production statistics, imports, exports
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh actual rents for housing
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Actual rents for housing
  • often problematic:
    • unrepresentative rental markets
    • state regulated rental markets
    • subsidies, social transfers in cash and kind
    • infrequent sources with often small sample size
  • sources:
    • rent, real-estate agency surveys
    • census, micro-census
    • administrative information
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh imputed rents for housing 1
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Imputed rents for housing (1)
  • Stratification or user cost?
  • Stratification: assume for owner-occupied dwelling same rent as for similar rented dwelling
    • sufficiently big rental market must exist
    • rents used must be representative
    • leads to rents approach in PPP
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh imputed rents for housing 2
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Imputed rents for housing (2)
  • User cost: Establish GVA (as for other non-market production) by sum of the cost
    • criteria for stratification not fulfilled because of high owner-occupation
    • good estimate of capital stock necessary as consumption of fixed capital is vital part of the user cost method
    • see Eurostat project guidelines and templates
    • leads to quantity approach in PPP
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh water gas electricity other fuel
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Water, Gas, electricity, other fuel
  • Problematic because of income in kind and social transfers in cash and kind
  • sources:
    • HBS
    • RT
    • sales by utility companies and state monopolies
    • imports and exports
    • administrative sources on free of charge (or at reduced prices) provision to households
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh furnishings household equipment etc
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Furnishings, household equipment etc
  • less problematic, but watch:
    • own account production for furniture
  • sources:
    • HBS
    • RT, VAT,
    • production statistics, imports, exports
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh health
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Health
  • problematic because of
    • different social security systems
    • mixture of state and private systems
    • subsidies, social transfers in cash and kind
  • sources:
    • social security, ministry of health
    • hospital statistics
    • HBS
    • production statistics, imports, exports
    • statistics on pharmaceutical bulk and retail trade
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh purchases of vehicles
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Purchases of vehicles
  • problematic because of
    • second hand cars, smuggling of stolen cars
    • discounts
  • sources:
    • HBS
    • RT, VAT
    • production statistics, imports, exports
    • car registration information
    • information from car dealer organisations and automobile clubs on discounts
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh operation of personal transport equipment
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Operation of personal transport equipment
  • fuel
    • HBS
    • RT, VAT, mineral oil tax
    • production statistics, exports, imports
  • maintenance and repair:
    • HBS
    • service statistics
    • information from automobile clubs
    • watch: do it yourself, helping neighbors, black market for making stolen cars not recognizable
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh transport services
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Transport services
  • problematic because of
    • mixture of state and private systems
    • subsidies, social transfers in cash and kind
  • sources:
    • ministry of transport, service statistics
    • HBS
    • sales by state monopolies
    • administrative sources on free of charge (or at reduced prices) provision to households
    • internet
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh communication
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Communication
  • problematic because of
    • mixture of state and private systems
    • mixture of services and goods
  • sources:
    • ministry of communication, service statistics
    • HBS
    • sales by state monopolies
    • internet
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh recreation items and equipment personal effects
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Recreation items and equipment, personal effects
  • less problematic
  • sources:
    • HBS
    • RT, VAT,
    • production statistics, imports, exports
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh recreational and culture services
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Recreational and culture services
  • less problematic, but watch
    • subsidies, social transfers in cash and kind
  • sources:
    • ministry of culture, sport, tourism
    • culture statistics
    • tourism statistics
    • HBS
    • internet
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh education
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Education
  • problematic because of
    • mixture of state and private systems
    • subsidies
    • social transfers in cash and kind
  • sources:
    • ministry of education, service statistics
    • education statistics
    • HBS
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh restaurants and hotels personal care
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Restaurants and hotels, personal care
  • problematic because of
    • tips
    • consistency of prices in PPP and NA
  • sources:
    • service statistics
    • tourism statistics
    • HBS
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh prostitution
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Prostitution
  • Politically very problematic, but if important production/ expenditure exists, estimate should be made
  • problematic borderline to legal services like massage and sauna clubs
  • sources:
    • Ministry of health
    • police
    • assistance organisations for prostitutes
      • number of persons providing and consuming services
      • prices, intermediate consumption
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh social protection
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Social protection
  • content:
    • payments of households for assistance and supports services provided to persons who are elderly, disabled, survivors, homeless etc.
  • sources:
    • HBS
    • organisations providing such services
    • respective ministries of health, social affairs etc.
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh insurance
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Insurance
  • Reminder:
    • we are only looking at the service charge
  • Sources:
    • insurance supervising bodies
    • ministry of finance/ economy
    • consumer organisations
    • insurance dealers
    • insurance company business accounts
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh fisim other financial services
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH FISIM/ Other financial services
  • FISIM: calculations by the statistical offices based on information from:
    • ministry of finance/ economy
    • national central banks
    • banking and finance supervising bodies
  • Other financial services (banks charges):
    • banking supervising bodies
    • national central banks
    • consumer organisations
    • financial dealers
sources for final consumption expenditure by hh net purchases abroad
Sources for final consumption expenditure by HH Net purchases abroad
  • Purchases by residents abroad:
    • HBS
    • tourist surveys
    • national bank (money exchange)
  • Purchases by non-residents on economic territory of the country
    • tourist surveys
    • national bank (money exchange)
    • special survey among retail traders