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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물. 강의자료 ppt-9. 2011-1 학기. 미생물 은 어떤 존재인가?. 생명공학 (biotechnology) 의 주체인 미생물. Biotechnology ( 생명공학 , 생물공학 ). Use of organisms to form useful products (in industrial, medical, or agricultural applications) . Products of Microbial Biotechnology.

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인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물

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    1. 인간의 삶과 역사 속의 미생물 강의자료ppt-9 2011-1학기

    2. 미생물은어떤 존재인가?

    3. 생명공학(biotechnology)의 주체인 미생물

    4. Biotechnology (생명공학, 생물공학) Use of organisms to form useful products (inindustrial, medical, or agricultural applications)

    5. Products of Microbial Biotechnology

    6. 식품 및 식품 첨가물 생산: 발효 식품, 아미노산, 미생물 식품으로 이용(버섯, 미역, 김 등) • 건강(영양)보조제 생산: 식이섬유, 비타민, 미생물 건강(영양)보조제로 이용(유산균, 클로렐라, 스피루리나, 효모 등) • 의약품 생산: 항생물질, 호르몬, 스테로이드등 • 효소 생산: 산업용 효소, 세제 첨가용 효소 • 화학제품 생산: 바이오폴리머(생분해 플라스틱 등), 시트르산, 아세톤, 글리세린, 에틸알코홀, 초산 등 • 연료 생산: 메탄가스, 에틸알코홀, 수소 가스 등 • 살충제 생산:미생물 살충제 • 광물 정제:구리, 금, 납 등

    7. Combinational Biology in Biotechnology

    8. 식품 및식품첨가물 생산

    9. Products for food industry • Wine • Brewing, distilling, and commodity Alcohol • Vinegar • Citric acid and other organic compounds • Yeastas a food and food supplement • Mushrooms, spirulina, chlorella, edible seaweeds as a food source

    10. Industrial uses of yeast and yeast products

    11. Vitamins and amino acids: Amino acids • Amino Acids • Used as feed additives in the food industry • Used as nutritional supplements in nutraceutical industry • Used as starting materials in the chemical industry • Examples include • Glutamicacid (MSG) • Aspartic acid and phenylalanine (aspartame [Nutrasweet]) • Lysine (food additives)

    12. 건강(영양)보조제 생산

    13. Industrial uses of yeast and yeast products

    14. Vitamins and amino acids: Vitamins • Production of vitamins is second only to antibiotics in terms of total pharmaceutical sales • Vitamin B12 produced exclusively by microorganisms • Deficiency results in pernicious anemia (악성빈혈) • Riboflavin can also be produced by microbes VB12 Riboflavin

    15. Amino acids used in the food industry

    16. 의약품 생산

    17. Steroids and other biotransformations • Steroids • Are derivatives of sterols • Are important animal hormones with medicinal uses • Corticosteroids reduce inflammation, and help control allergies, inflammation and arthritis • Estrogens and androgenic steroids play a role in human fertility and can stimulate production of muscle mass • Production of steroids by chemical process is costly • Use microbes to reduce cost (biotransformation) Sterol

    18. Cortisone production using a microbe: Biotransformation

    19. 효소 생산

    20. Enzymes as industrial products • Exoenzymes • Enzymes that are produced in such large amounts that they are excreted into the medium instead of being held within the cell; they are extracellular • Can digest insoluble polymers such as cellulose, protein, and starch

    21. Enzymes as industrial products • Enzymes are produced from fungi and bacteria • Bacterial proteases are used in laundry detergents (can also contain amylases, lipases, and reductases) • Isolated from alkaliphilic bacteria • Amylases and glucoamylasesare also commercially important • Produce high-fructose syrup

    22. Microbial enzymes and their applications

    23. Enzymes as industrial products • Extremozymes • Enzymes that function at some environmental extreme (i.e., pH or temperature) • Produced by extremophiles

    24. Examples of extremozymes: Acid-tolerant enzymes

    25. 화학제품 생산

    26. Industrial uses of yeast and yeast products

    27. Biopolymers • Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) • Bioplastic • Dextrin (a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen), cyclodextrin, and other polysaccharides • Used to modify flow characteristics of liquids and to serve as gelling agents

    28. Bacterial plastics • The recalcitrance of plastics has fueled research efforts into a biodegradable alternative (biopolymers)

    29. Bacterial plastics poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Poly-β-hydroxyvalerate

    30. Bacterial plastics Shampoo bottle made of the PHB/PHV copolymer

    31. Biosurfactants • Used for emulsification, increasing detergency, wetting and phase dispersion, and solubilization • Important in bioremediation, oil spill dispersion, and enhancing oil recovery • Many have antibacterial and antifungal activity; some inactivate enveloped viruses

    32. Commodity alcohol production • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA

    33. 연료 생산

    34. Commodity alcohol production • > 50,000,000,000 liters of ethanol are produced yearly for industrial purposes • Used as an industrial solvent and gasoline supplement Ethanol production plant, Nebraska, USA

    35. Estimates of CH4released into the atmosphere

    36. Anoxic decomposition

    37. Production of petroleum by some microbes Certain green algae Botryococcusbraunii excreting oil droplets

    38. 살충제 생산

    39. Microbial insecticides (biopesticides) • Biological agents, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, or their components, which can be used to kill a susceptible insect

    40. Microbial insecticides (biopesticides): • Bacteria as biopesticides • Bacillus thuringiensis • Produces a parasporal body duringsporulation as an intracellular protein toxin crystal • Parasporalbody • Acts as microbial insecticide (Bt toxin) for specific groups of insects • Bt toxin • used for over 40 years • unlike chemical insecticides, does not accumulate in environment

    41. Toxic parasporal crystal in Bacillus thuringiensis

    42. Activation of Bt toxin