Section 1 Quiz. What is the hijra ? Who was Muhammad? Is Islam monotheistic or polytheistic? What is the Islamic holy text, or holy book called? Define jihad.
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Section 1 Quiz What is the hijra? Who was Muhammad? Is Islam monotheistic or polytheistic? What is the Islamic holy text, or holy book called? Define jihad.
SSWH5 The student will trace the origins and expansion of the Islamic World between 600 CE and 1300 CE. a. Explain the origins of Islam and the growth of the Islamic Empire. b. Identify the Muslim trade routes to India, China, Europe, and Africa and assess the economic impact of this trade. c. Explain the reasons for the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims. d. Identify the contributions of Islamic scholars in medicine (IbnSina) and geography (IbnBattuta). e. Describe the impact of the Crusades on both the Islamic World and Europe. (media center on Thursday)f. Analyze the relationship between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Arabian Peninsula • Mostly desert • Occupied by Bedouins • Mecca was central trading city
Muhammad the Prophet • Read p. 252 • Married rich widow 15 years older than him • Went to cave and heard Allah’s voice • Was illiterate – family members wrote down his revelations • Began teaching what he heard • Travelled to Mecca and destroyed the idols Before Islam, religions of the Arabian Peninsula were polytheistic.
Islam - Doctrine • Five pillars, or tenets • Declaration of Faith • Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca • Tithe – 2% of income • Jihad – spiritual struggle • Hajj – to Mecca • Quran, also spelled Koran, is main holy book • Believe Jesus was prophet but not God • Holy day is on Friday – like Jewish Sabbath Call to Prayer
Women and Islam • Sharia – Islamic law • Quran treats men and women with equality • In practice, similar to how women were viewed according to Christianity, some Muslim women were highly subjugated, or inferior to men, in ancient Islamic societies
Islamic Schism “Major sects of Islam” – Video • Sunnis – • Shiites – • Sufis/Dervishes - • Black Muslims – What are the reasons for the schism, or split?
Islamic Schism Muhammad died, he had no sons Leaders argue over who should take over as caliph Sunnis say the leader should be elected Shiites say the leader should be a blood relation of Muhammad This led to religious wars between the two
Spread of Islam – Umayyads 650-750 A.D. Later Umayyad caliphate rulers • Muhammad dies – 632 A.D. • 1st caliph, Abu Baker, spreads Islam through series of wars • First four caliphs conquered Byzantine and Persian territory • Tolerant conquerors – didn’t force conversion • Conquer Modern day Spain Muhammad’s caliphate
Spread of Islam – Abbasids 750-1250 A.D. • A new family of Sunni leaders take power • Baghdad becomes their powerful Arab capital • This is the Golden Age • Arabs invent Algebra, advances in mathematics and medicine
Effects of Islamic Empires • Create learning centers in Cairo, Cordoba Spain, and Baghdad • Trade network closely links Europe and the Arab world • While Europe was in Dark Ages, preserved learning from Ancient Greeks and Romans
Decline of Islamic Empires • 850 A.D. Ottoman Turks conquer most of the Byzantine empire • 1099 A.D. Christians attack Jerusalem in the Crusades – attacks lasted nearly 200 years • 1216 A.D. Genghis Khan leading the Mongols attacks
Spice Trade – what were spices back then? • Muslims control the spice trade for 400 years • Began to trade directly in spices • Took Islam with them
Islamic Scholars • Ibn Sana – 900 AD • Child genius • Studied Aristotle • By 18, was prominent doctor • Wrote more than 40 books describing diseases and discussing philosophy • IbnBattuta – 1330 AD - travelled from Europe to Asia - took detailed journals - made maps of his travels - gives modern historians a picture of what life was like at that time
Pop Quiz • Write an 8-sentence paragraph, based on your assignment yesterday and the notes we’ve taken, that explains what the Crusades were, why they were undertaken, who participated in them, when they occurred, and how they affected the caliphate (Islamic Empire). Make sure you include a sentence about Salah Al-Din (Saladin) and his role in the Crusades. • 1 pt of extra credit if you explain what the word crusades means or where the word comes from.
Delhi Sultanate – 200 years Defeated Hindus with better weapons in 1206 A.D. -used better arrows and horses instead of elephants -Hindu princes couldn’t unite Tamarlane defeats the Delhi Sultanate Mughals – 300 years Mongolian descendants who became Muslim Babur – first mughal leader Akbar (The Great) Strong central govt. Modernized army Promoted religious harmony Dehli Sultanate, Mughals (Mongols), and Ottomans Mughal Empire Delhi Empire
Taj Mahal – NOT a mosque • It’s a burial tomb. • Built by Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar, for his favorite wife. • Built in Persian style
Ottoman Empire – Islamic Turks • Suleiman “The Lawgiver” - Ottoman ruler during “Golden Age” - modernized army - at height, ruled same area as Roman Empire • Janissaries – elite fighting force • Society organized into 4 classes - intellectuals - business men - warriors - farmers
Christianity, Islam, and JudaismCircle Maps • Requirements: • 3 circles • One for each religion • 7 points of information in circle • 2 points of info in frame of reference 1. What do you think about the religion? FRAME OF REFERENECE • Holy text • Area of the world where the religion originated or began 2. Founder 3. & 4. Two beliefs about the way people should behave or act RELIGION • 6. How the religion says women should be treated. Christianity – p.142-143 Islam – p. 252- 255 Judaism – p.46-47 • 7. List major sects or denominations 2. What do you think other religions say or believe about it? 3. If believers of a religion were or are persecuted, why do you think that is?
CNN Quiz T or F: We are OFFICIALLY in a recession? What is a recession? What device are airports and border customs using to improve security? Which service industries are witnessing an upswing in business despite the economic slow down?
Arabian Peninsula • Mostly desert • Occupied by Bedouins • Mecca was central city
BE SPECIFIC! difference difference similarity difference difference RELIGION similarity RELIGION similarity difference difference
Vocabulary Define: • Caliph • Minaret • Muezzin • Sultan
Late Period Early Period Islamic Art Middle Period
Music • “Oud” stringed instrument • Became the “lute” in Spain • The Lute became the modern guitar
Islamic Literature • Spoken word – Bedouins didn’t write their poetry down – memorized • Extemporaneous – improvised • Rhymed and free verse • 1,001 Arabian Nights - Scheherazade – fictitious person
Tarafah ibn Al-Abd - 800’s A.D.Famous Islamic Poet “A young gazelle there is in the tribe, dark-lipped, fruit-shaking, flaunting a double necklace of pearls and topazes, holding aloof, with the herd grazing in the lush thicket, nibbling the tips of the arak-fruit, wrapped in her cloak. Her dark lips part in a smile, teeth like a chamomileon a moist hillock shining amid the virgin sands, whitened as it were by the sun's rays, all but her gumsthat are smeared with colyrium - she gnaws not against them; a face as though the sun had loosed his mantle upon it, pure of hue, with not a wrinkle to mar it.”
Compare Poetry • Shakespeare 1600’s: “My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun ; Coral is far more red than her lips' red. I have seen roses, damask'd red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks “ • Yazid 800’s: “She is radiant. The sun would be ashamed to rise again on anyone if it only saw her… Pearls rained down from her Narcissus eyes, the roses of her cheeks and her wine-red lips.”
Vocab QuizDefine the following terms: • Sultanate • Caste • Rajah • Who were the Delhi sultans? • Who were the Mughals?
Word SearchDefine the following terms: Ch. 11 • Rajah • Sultanate • Minaret • Caste • Shah
Review • Christians worship in a ______. • Muslims worship in a ______. • Jews worship in a _______. • What is Sharia? What does it deal with today? • What are the five pillars of Islam? • Why are people living in North Africa Muslims today? • T or F: Muhammad is a Muslim God. • T or F: The Quran states women are spiritually equal to men. • T or F: The Delhi sultanate was an empire.
Christian Holy Wars • Occurred because Ottomans asked for Europeans help against the Seljuks • Then Christians attacked Muslims, Jews, Pagan Slavs, and Ottomans Pilgrims not crusaders • Commanded by the Pope • Took place over 200 years • Conquered Palestine and Jerusalem
CNN News/Notes Quiz – Open-Note Describe the public option (what is the public option we keep hearing about in the news? What illness is now considered a world-wide pandemic? How are vaccines made? What new technique have some scientists come up with to make vaccines that is not yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration? In what U.S. territory did a wild fire break out? One man makes about $25,000 extra a year selling what baseball supply item? The Tea Party protests, of the Republican party, are protesting what current bill in discussion in Congress? Why is the Army’s new Drill Sergeant school commandant unique? In St. Paul, Minnesota, what new college degree can you get? What animal turned out to be an excellent skate-boarder? Why did President Obama declare the H1N1 virus to be a national emergency even thought lots of people aren’t dying from it? Iran says it’s nuclear program is not to make bombs but to create what?