GRAMMAR REVIEW. CAPITALIZATION The first word of every sentence. The first-person singular pronoun, I .
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Directions: Correct the capitalization errors in the following sentences. Circle the letters that need to be capitalized.
EXAMPLE: do we need to bring snacks to practice tuesday?
“when are we going to the grand canyon?” said mindy.
in the spring we need to visit my grandma in new mexico.
when the students arrive in washington, d.c., they will visit senator brown.
next fridayjenn is bringing her brother to volleyball practice.
you need to go south on popular street until you come to a brick restaurant.
4. "Don't eat that pizza," warned Lisa. "It's over two weeks
old ", she then explained.
A. Should the comma after pizza follow the quotation marks?
B. Or should the comma after old precede the quotation
5. Fifteen uncooked popcorn kernels, and a few grains of salt littered the front of Robert's shirt as he slouched in the theater seat.
A. Should you add a comma after fifteen?
B. Or should you remove the comma after kernels?
Modifiers are just what they sound like—words or phrases that modify something else. Misplaced modifiers are modifiers that modify something you didn't intend them to modify. For example, the word only is a modifier that's easy to misplace.
INCORRECT: Covered in wildflowers, Serena pondered the hillside's beauty.
CORRECT: Covered in wildflowers, the hillside amazed Serena.
INCORRECT: The dealer sold the BMW to the buyer with the leather, heated seats.
CORRECT: The dealer sold the BMW with the leather, heated seats to the buyer.
A phrase actually doesn’t modify anything; the thing/ person/concept being described is missing.
INCORRECT: While taking out the trash, the sack broke.CORRECT: While Jamie was taking out the trash, the sack broke.
INCORRECT: Standing on the balcony, the ocean view was magnificent.CORRECT: Standing on the balcony, we had a magnificent ocean view.
MISPLACED MODIFIER: Directions: Determine whether the sentences below contain a mistake with a modifier. Fix any problems that you find.
4. Perched on the curtain rod, the parakeet watched Rocky the cat slink behind the living room sofa.
5. Rapping the pencil on the edge of the desk, the fourth cause of the French Revolution would not come to mind.
Refers to sentences that follow the same structure.
Not Parallel:Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle.
Parallel:Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle.
Not Parallel:The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.
Parallel:The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.
PARALLEL STRUCTURE: Directions: Determine whether the sentences below contain errors in parallel structure. Fix any problems you find.
4. Celine looked behind the toilet, in the laundry basket, and checked under the bed, but she could not find Squeeze, her nine-foot albino python.
5. Not only did Malinda squeal at the sight of the beautiful bouquet, but she also was tearing open the box and eating chocolates all the way to the restaurant.
PronounA pronoun is a substitute for a noun. It refers to a person, place, thing, feeling, or quality but does not refer to it by its name.
Ex: he, she, they, we…
Antecedent An antecedent is the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers, understood by the context.
Person, Number (singular or plural), and Gender
*Certain words are ALWAYS singular, even though they may seem plural.
EX: anybody, each, everybody, somebody, someone
If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, he or she has to know the rules of the game.
Everyonewho went on the field trip was supposed to bring his or her permission form.
PRONOUN/ANTECEDENT: Directions: In each sentence highlight the antecedent. Make necessary corrections to the pronoun, not the antecedent.
4. Both the computer monitor and the refrigerator door have its shiny surface smeared with dog snot from our curious puppy Oreo.
5. After feeding several quarters into the gumball machine, a person learns that they havelittle chance of receiving the miniature camera in the display.
1. When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by “and,” use a plural verb.
She and her friends are at the fair.
2. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by “or,” or “nor,” use a singular verb.
The book or the pen is in the drawer.
3. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by “or” or “nor,” the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb.
The boy or his friends run every day.
His friends or the boy runs every day.
5. Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb. The verb agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.
Oneof the boxes isopen
The peoplewho listen to that music arefew.
The team captain, as well as his players, isanxious.
6. The words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are singular and require a singular verb.
Eachof these hot dogs is
Everybodywho has taken
classes knowsMr. Jones.
SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT: Directions: Choose the correct verb form for the sentences below.
THERE/THEIR/THEY’RE: Directions: Fill in the blanks with the appropriate choice—their, there, or they're.
4. Mrs. O'Shea spent the day steam cleaning the living room floor. Now her children can hardly find the kitchen without ___________________ trail of dirty footprints leading the way.
5. Dolly hates dogs more than snakes or cockroaches. She believes that canines are loathsome creatures because __________________ only goal in life is to kill her front lawn with urine.
When you cite according to MLA, watch punctuation:
When George speaks of the dream, he explains, “ ‘Well,
it’s ten acres…’” (Steinbeck 56).
Quote introduced with comma since evidence fits within flow of sentence
Quotes, then a single quote b/c you are lifting words that are spoken
End punctuation has single, then double quotes to indicate that you are done copying words that are spoken
There is no comma between author’s last name and page #. Also, end punctuation goes after citation
At the end of the novel, George prepares to kill Lennie: “George raised the gun and his hand shook, and he dropped his hand to the ground again” (Steinbeck 105).
Quote introduced with a colon since evidence does not fit within flow of sentence
Remember that you need to rely on the LITERARY PRESENT!!!
Note that just regular quotation marks are used to indicate where you start and where you end the copied words
No comma between author’s last name and page #. Also, end punctuation belongs AFTER citation
QUOTES/CITATIONS: Fix errors related either to quote integration or to citations (MLA format). *Citing Shakespeare assumes dialogue, so no need for extra quotes.
4. After the death of his dog, Candy is distraught “ ‘I ought to have shot that dog myself, George.’” (Steinbeck 61).
5. In Act I of Macbeth, the witches present a paradox “Fair is foul, and foul is fair.” (Shakespeare I.i.10).