Climate Change and Sustainable Mountain Development in Hindu Kush - Himalaya Presented by Bidya B. Pradhan
ICIMOD’s Mission Develop and provide integrated and innovative solutions, in cooperation with national, regional and international partners, which foster action and change for overcoming mountain people’s economic, social, environmental and physical vulnerability.
The Hindu Kush-Himalayas • Major Characteristics: • Youngest geological formation and fragile mountain ecosystem; • Extremely high spatial variations with diverse physical and climatic conditions; • World’s highest peaks and deepest gorges and with very high degree of inaccessibility; • Prone to natural disasters: earthquakes, landslides, flash floods and GLOFs; • One of the poorest region of the world and often marginalised by main development mainstream • Extends over 3500 km from • Afghanistan to Myanmar and • Home to 150 million People environmental fragility and social economic vulnerability put HKH on the top of the WSSD and BGMS agenda
Mountain Matters… Mountains Provides Important Ecosystem Services… • Fresh Water • Medicinal Plants • Biodiversity • Energy • Minerals • Air / Atmosphere • Spectacular Views • Diverse Culture • . . . . . . Anchor to the Plains
Natural and Human-led Processes Twin Challenges Creating Very High Demand • Improving • Livelihoods • Socio-economic • Conditions • Cultural Heritage • Land Use • Pollution… • Minimizing Pressure • on Natural Capital • Biodiversity • Forest • Water • Climate • Energy… Population Growth Infrastructure Development Natural Resource Exploitation Natural Processes: Self-Regulating Climate Change, Natural Hazard Human–led Processes: Unsustainable
Global Environment Change Systematic Change taking place in one locale, can effect changes in systems elsewhere Cumulative Change localized where changes in one place do not affect changes in other distant places. When accumulated, however, results in resource degradation and have adverse effect on ecosystem Mountains are the areas most sensitive to all climatic changes in the atmosphere However lack of sufficient knowledge of mountain environment for understanding of mountain specificities Thus ICIMOD has been working on developing methodologies for applying the technology in portraying the livelihoods of the people in sustainable management of mountain resources to minimize the outcomes of these both types of changes.
Successive development of the Tsho Rolpa Glacial Lake from 1957 to 2000 Almost 67% of Glacials have retreated SNP & KCA already experience GLOF Study by UNEP & ICIMOD found more than 20 glacial lakes at risk of bursting Source: Mool et al
Average growth of the lake 0.024 sq.km per year 0.035 sq.km per year 0.08 sq.km per year Source: S. Bajracharya
1998 2000 Photo:S. Bajracharya Photo:S.Joshi Tsho Rolpa – Before & After it is important to understand to mitigate Mountain Hazards for Downstream Security
Glacier retreat and successive development of glacial lakes Gangxi Co Lake Poiqu Basin in China and Bhote Koshi – Sun Koshi Basin in Nepal Gungco Lake Lumu Chimi Lake Source: Mool et al
Transboundary Air Pollution • Malé Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution • and its likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia • Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC)
PHASE I Awareness and preparation of the baseline information PHASE III Provide scientific information; assist in activities to reduce pollution PHASE II Capacity development for monitoring and analysis Implementation of Male’ Declaration
Narowal Abadan Chitwan Geliphu Suntharban Port Canning Anuradaphura Hanimaadu Monitoring Stations • Parameters • Monitored • TSP, PM10 • SO2, NO2 • Rainwater analysis • pH, • Electrical Conductivity • anions • NO3-, SO4 • cations • Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+
Source: Kuylenstierna et al. 2001 Terrestrial Ecosystem Sensitivity to Acidic Deposition in South Asia (preliminary assessment) Source: M. Engardt
Source: V. Ramanathan Photographs taken 30 km south of Mt. Everest from a flight altitude of about 3 km reveal the extent of the haze in Nepal. Himalaya region is likely be subjected to a heavy loading of aerosol during the winter season Source: V. Ramanathan Source: V. Ramanathan Both photographs were taken from the same location, one (leftphoto) taken towards the northern side and the other southern side (rightphoto).
Pilot Study in Nepal Locations
AOD LIDAR Observation AOD from Satellite Preliminary Results
Regional Water Quality Network and Database The South Asia Water Analysis Network (SAWAN) In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, USA Monitoring Stations across HKH Region